Book: Fortran techniques with special reference to non-numerical applications (1972)

Programming flow diagram, with the flow of a program using subroutines on the left ("closed coding") and the same structure on the right written as a series of GOTO-controlled sections ("open coding") to save computer memory and execution time
Subroutines do, however, bring with them considerable
overheads in both space and execution time
.”

Imagine you have a programming task that involves parsing and analyzing text. Nothing complicated: maybe just breaking it into tokens. Now imagine the only programming language you had available:

  • has no text handling functions at all: you can pack characters into numeric types, but how they are packed and how many you get per type are system dependent;
  • allows integers in variables starting with the letters I→N, with A→H and O→Z floating point;
  • has IF … THEN but no ELSE, with the preferred form being
    IF (expr) neg, zero, pos
    where expr is the expression to evaluate, and neg, zero and pos are statement labels to jump to if the evaluation is negative, zero or positive, respectively;
  • has only enough memory for (linear, non-associative) arrays of a couple of thousand entries;
  • disallows recursion completely;
  • charges for computing time such that a solo researcher’s work might cost many times their salary in a few weeks.

Sounds impossible, right? But that’s the world described in Colin Day’s book from 1972, Fortran techniques with special reference to non-numerical applications.

The programming language used is USA Standard FORTRAN X3.9 1966, commonly known as Fortran IV after IBM’s naming convention. For all it looks crude today, Fortran was an efficient, sod-the-theory-just-get-the-job-done language that allowed numerical problems to be described as a text program and solved with previously impossible speed. Every computer shipped with some form of Fortran compiler at the time. Day wasn’t alone working within Fortran IV’s text limitations in the early 1970s: the first Unix tools at Bell Labs were written in Fortran IV — that was before they built themselves their own toolchain and invented the segmentation fault.

The book is a small (~ 90 page) delight, and is a window into system limitations we might almost find unimaginable. Wanna create a lookup table of a thousand entries? Today it’s a fraction of a thought and microseconds of program time. But nearly fifty years ago, Colin Day described methods of manually creating two small index and target arrays and rolling your own hash functions to store and retrieve stuff. Text? Hollerith constants, mate; that’s yer lot — 6HOH HAI might fit in one computer word if you were running on big iron. Sorting and searching (especially without recursion) are revealed to be the immensely complex subjects they are, all hidden behind today’s one-liner methods. Day shows methods to simulate recursion with arrays standing in for pointer stacks of GO TO targets (:coding_horror_face:). And if it’s graphics you want, that’s what the line printer’s for:

Damped cosine 2d function density plot rendered as mono-spaced characters, approximately 60 colums across, made up of only X, 0, *, +, - and space characters
… the most serious drawback to a density plot of the type shown above is the limited number of characters used to represent the height above the page.”
(This image was deemed impressive enough by Cambridge University Press that they used it as the cover of the book. The same function became a bit of a visual cliché, with home computers being able to render it in colour and isometric 3D less than a decade later.)

Why do I like this book enough to track down a used copy, import it, scan it, correct it and upload it to the Internet Archive? To me, it shows the layers we now take for granted, and the privilege we have with these hard problems of half a century ago being trivially soluble on a $10 computer the size of a stick of gum. When we run today’s massive AI models with little interest in the underlying assumptions but a sharp focus on getting the results we want, we do a disservice to the years of R&D that got us here.

The ‘charges for computing time’ comment above is from Colin’s website. Early central computing facilities had the SaaS billing down solid, partly because many mainframes were rented from the vendor and system usage was accounted for in minute detail. Apparently the system Colin used (when a new lecturer) was at another college, and it was the custom to send periodic invoices for CPU time and storage used back to the user’s department. Nowhere on these invoices did it say that these accounts were for information only and were not payable. Not the best way to greet your users.

(Incidentally, if you hate yourself and everyone else around you, you can get a feel of system billing on any Linux system by enabling user quotas. You’ll very likely stop doing this almost immediately as the restrictions and reporting burden seem utterly alien to us today.)

While the book is still very much in copyright, the copy I have sat unread at Lakehead University Library since June 1995; the due date slip’s still pasted in the back. It’s been out of print at Cambridge University Press since May 1987, even if they do have a plaintive/passive aggressive “hey we could totally make an ebook of this if you really want it” link on their site. I — and the lovely folks hosting it at the Internet Archive — have saved them from what’s evidently too much trouble. I won’t even raise an eyebrow if they pull a Nintendo and start selling this scan.


Colossal thanks to Internet Archive for making the book uploading process much easier than I thought it was. They’ve completely revamped the processing behind it, and the fully open-source engine gives great results. As ever, if you assumed you knew how to do it, think again and read the How to upload scanned images to make a book guide. Uploading a zip file of images is much easier than mucking about with weird command-line TIFF and PDF tools. The resulting PDF is about half the size of the optimized scans I uploaded, and it’s nicely tagged with metadata and contains (mostly) searchable text. It took more than an hour to process on the archive’s spectacularly powerful servers, though, so I hate to think what Colin Day’s bill would have been in 1972 for that many CPU cycles … or if even a computer of that time, given enough storage, could complete the project by now.

TIMTOWTDI ’70

One of the earlier acknowledgements of the inevitability of TIMTOWTDI in programming:

In computing there is always more than one correct way of approaching a given problem. Generally a standard mathematical method for solution can be found, or a method developed. Programs using the same method can still be written in more than one correct way.
from Digital Equipment Corporation, PDP-8 Handbook Series: Programming Languages (May 1970), p.12-6

Admittedly, it’s talking about BASIC — and by BASIC, PDP-8 BASIC was very basic¹ indeed — but there’s always more than one correct way to implement a solution.


¹: no text string handling, variable names limited to two characters in [A-Z][0-9] format, IF…THEN can only take a line number as argument (as with Dartmouth BASIC), one statement per line, max 350 lines or so. I’d heard that DEC thought that BASIC was going to be a passing fad and that their own FOCAL language was going to “win”, so their BASIC offerings were deliberately given less attention than FOCAL. Hmm …

bench64: a new BASIC benchmark index for 8-bit computers

Nobody asked for this. Nobody needs this. But here we are …

commodore 64 screen shot showing benchmark results:
basic bench index
>i good. ntsc c64=100

1/8 - for:
 60 s; 674.5 /s; i= 100
2/8 - goto:
 60 s; 442.3 /s; i= 100
3/8 - gosub:
 60 s; 350.8 /s; i= 100
4/8 - if:
 60 s; 242.9 /s; i= 100
5/8 - fn:
 60 s; 60.7 /s; i= 100
6/8 - maths:
 60 s; 6.4 /s; i= 100
7/8 - string:
 60 s; 82.2 /s; i= 100
8/8 - array:
 60 s; 27.9 /s; i= 100

overall index= 100


ready.
bench64 running on the reference system, an NTSC Commodore 64c

Inspired by J. G. Harston’s clever but domain-specific ClockSp benchmark, I set out to write a BASIC benchmark suite that was:

  1. more portable;
  2. based on a benchmark system that more people might own;
  3. and a bunch of other less important ideas.

Since I already had a Commodore 64, and seemingly several million other people did too, it seemed like a fair choice to use as the reference system. But the details, so many details …

basic bench index
>i good. ntsc c64=100

1/8 - for:
 309.5 s; 130.8 /s; i= 19 
2/8 - goto:
 367.8 s; 72.1 /s; i= 16 
3/8 - gosub:
 340.9 s; 61.7 /s; i= 18 
4/8 - if:
 181.8 s; 80.1 /s; i= 33 
5/8 - fn:
 135.3 s; 26.9 /s; i= 44 
6/8 - maths:
 110.1 s; 3.5 /s; i= 54 
7/8 - string:
 125.8 s; 39.2 /s; i= 48 
8/8 - array:
 103 s; 16.3 /s; i= 58 

overall index= 29
It was entirely painful running the same code on a real ZX Spectrum at under ⅓ the speed of a C64

(I mean: who knew that Commodore PET BASIC could run faster or slower depending on how your numbered your lines? Not me — until today, that is.)

While the benchmark doesn’t scale well for BASIC running on modern computers — the comparisons between a simple 8-bit processor at a few MHz and a multi-core wildly complex modern CPU at many GHz just aren’t applicable — it turns out I may have one of the fastest 8-bit BASIC computers around in the matchbox-sized shape of the MinZ v1.1 (36.864 Z180, CP/M 2.2, BBC BASIC [Z80] v3):

BASIC BENCH INDEX
>I GOOD. NTSC C64=100

1/8 - FOR:
 3.2 S; 12778 /S; I= 1895 
2/8 - GOTO:
 6.1 S; 4324.5 /S; I= 978 
3/8 - GOSUB:
 3.1 S; 6789 /S; I= 1935 
4/8 - IF:
 2.9 S; 4966.9 /S; I= 2046 
5/8 - FN:
 3.5 S; 1030.6 /S; I= 1698 
6/8 - MATHS:
 1.5 S; 255.3 /S; I= 4000 
7/8 - STRING:
 2.6 S; 1871.6 /S; I= 2279 
8/8 - ARRAY:
 3.1 S; 540.3 /S; I= 1935 

OVERALL INDEX= 1839 

That’s more than 9× the speed of a BBC Micro Model B.

Github link: bench64 – a new BASIC benchmark index for 8-bit computers.

Archive download:

Raspberry Pi Meetup tonight: the SeedStudio Wio Terminal

Anthopomorphized line drawing of the Wio terminal, with a simple smiling face on the screen, waving arms and legs with feet underneath
Wio Terminal-chan, the mascot for SeedStudio’s Wio Terminal

Hey – the Toronto Raspberry Pi Meetup Group is meeting online tonight! All welcome: you don’t have to be in/near Toronto to attend.

I’ll be introducing the SeeedStudio Wio Terminal: a flexible, small input and display device. The Wio Terminal has many interesting uses — including as an adjunct to or even alternative to the Raspberry Pi

Thursday, December 10, 2020
7:00 PM to 8:30 PM EST

Signup link: https://www.meetup.com/Raspberry-Pi/events/dhwnzrybcqbnb/
or directly on Google Meet: https://meet.google.com/snu-befk-ivf


Slides!

Stand for PROTODOME’s 4000AD chiptune album

4000AD album PCB in stand, with Print+ 3D printed headphones in foreground
4000AD album PCB in stand, with Print+ 3D printed headphones in foreground

So Dr. Blake “PROTODOME” Troise (previously) made a chiptune album that’s entirely synthesized by an Atmel/Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller in realtime. And every chip needs a PCB, right? So Blake released the album as a physical device you can solder up for yourself.

Of course, having the PCB lying flat doesn’t allow you to see Marianne Thompson’s great pixel cover art, or read the liner notes on the back — and risks having the circuit short out on random tinny things on your desk. (Maybe that’s just my desk, though.)

This stand allows you to display the board at a convenient 75° angle, but also allows the PCB to be flipped forward so you can read the liner notes comfortably. Yeah, I may have been a crate-digger at one time.

Links:

(or Thingiverse link: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4579706)

4000AD album PCB in stand, front view
4000AD album PCB in stand, rear view (messy Kapton taping optional)
4000AD album PCB stand in black low-sheen PLA

calculator for engineering nerds

For something to do with my head, I’m taking the RAC Advanced Ham Radio course. The exam uses a non-programmable scientific calculator. I thought that all my calculators were programmable, but we found this one lurking in the basement and it’s just perfect:

Casio fx-115MS scientific calculator
SI prefixes above 1…9 on the fx-115MS: f, p, n µ, m, k, M, G, T

This is one of the few calculators I’ve seen that both displays and takes inputs in SI units. How to put it into SI engineering display mode is explained in this delightful (archived) site Casio fx-115MS.

Entering numbers with SI prefixes is simple: type the number, then Shift and hit the prefix. So to enter 300000, you’d type 300 Shift 4 to get 300 k.

You do have to be a little careful reading the display in this mode, though. The display above reads 221 × 10-3 (from the m at right), or 0.221.

I don’t see any calculator in Casio’s current range that offers this handy feature. Guess I’m lucky I found it before the exam!

speech on Raspberry Pi: espeak-ng

Audio can be a bit dismal on a Raspberry Pi. Once you get a configuration that works, sometimes you’re not sure how you got there and you’ll do anything to keep that arcane setup going. It’s better than it was.

Speech synthesis or TTS adds an extra layer for potential failure. One of the popular Linux TTS systems, eSpeak, hasn’t seen much development in almost a decade and seems to only work through workarounds and hand-waving.

Thankfully, there’s a fork of eSpeak that is maintained: espeak-ng. Better yet, it’s packaged with Raspberry Pi OS and can be installed quite easily:

sudo apt install espeak-ng espeak-ng-data libespeak-ng-dev

In my simple tests, it output everything I expected of it.

eSpeak had a Python module that kinda worked, but espeak-ng’s is much more ambitious, and (mostly) does what it sets out to do. You can install it like this:

sudo pip3 install py-espeak-ng

py-espeak-ng has some documentation, but it’s still got some trial and error in getting it to work. The biggest issue that held me up was that the module needs to be initialized with a voice that espeak-ng already knows about. If you don’t specify a voice, or specify one that the system doesn’t know about, you won’t get any errors — but you won’t get any output, either.

Here’s a small Python example that you’ll probably want to try with no-one else within earshot. It repeats the same English phrase (a favourite of elocution teachers) in every English regional language that espeak-ng knows about. In addition, since I’m a dictionary nerd, it outputs phonetics too.

#!/usr/bin/python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# an espeakng elocution lesson from scruss, 2020-07
#     I suffered this at school, now you get to as well!
# You will need to:
#     sudo apt install espeak-ng espeak-ng-data libespeak-ng-dev
#     sudo pip3 install py-espeak-ng

from espeakng import ESpeakNG
from time import sleep

# you have to initialize with a voice that exists
#   `espeak-ng --voices=en` will list English ones
esng = ESpeakNG(voice='en-gb')
esng.pitch = 32
esng.speed = 150

phrase = "Father's car is a Jaguar and pa drives rather fast. "\
    "Castles, farms and draughty barns, all go charging past."
print(phrase)
print()

for voice in esng.voices:
    if voice['language'].startswith('en-'):
        print('Using voice:', voice['language'],
              'for', voice['voice_name'], '-')
        esng.voice = voice['language']
        ipa = esng.g2p(phrase, ipa=2)
        print(voice['language'], 'phonetics:', ipa)
        esng.say(phrase, sync=True)
        print()
        sleep(0.1)

Be thankful you can’t hear the output. The IPA output, however, is a thing of beauty:

./espeakNG_test.py
Father's car is a Jaguar and pa drives rather fast. Castles, farms and draughty barns, all go charging past.

Using voice: en-029 for English_(Caribbean) -
en-029 phonetics: fˈɑːdaz kˈɑ͡əɹ ɪz a d͡ʒˈaɡwɑ͡ə and pˈɑː dɹˈa͡ɪvz ɹˈɑːda fˈa͡astkˈa͡asɛlzfˈɑ͡əmz and dɹˈa͡afti bˈɑ͡ənzˈɔːl ɡˌo͡ʊ t͡ʃˈɑ͡əd͡ʒɪn pˈa͡ast

Using voice: en-gb for English_(Great_Britain) -
en-gb phonetics: fˈɑːðəz kˈɑːɹ ɪz ɐ d͡ʒˈaɡwɑː and pˈɑː dɹˈa͡ɪvz ɹˈɑːðə fˈastkˈasə͡lzfˈɑːmz and dɹˈafti bˈɑːnzˈɔːl ɡˌə͡ʊ t͡ʃˈɑːd͡ʒɪŋ pˈast

Using voice: en-gb-scotland for English_(Scotland) -
en-gb-scotland phonetics: fˈa:ðɜz kˈaːr ɪz ɐ d͡ʒˈaɡwaːr and pˈa: drˈa͡ɪvz rˈa:ðɜ fˈa:stkˈa:sə͡lzfˈaːrmz and drˈa:fte bˈaːrnzˈɔːl ɡˌoː t͡ʃˈaːrd͡ʒɪŋ pˈa:st
 …

WeAct F411 + MicroPython + NeoPixels

Further to the Canaduino STM32 boards with MicroPython writeup, I thought I’d start showing how you’d interface common electronics to the WeAct F411 boards. First off, NeoPixels!

Rather than use the Adafruit trade name, these are more properly called WS2812 LEDs. Each one contains a tiny microcontroller and it only takes three connections to drive a long chain of addressable colour LEDs. The downside is that the protocol to drive these is a bit of a bear, and really needs an accurate, fast clock signal to be reliable.

The STM32F411 chip does have just such a clock, and the generic micropython-ws2812 library slightly misuses the SPI bus to handle the signalling. The wiring’s simple:

  • F411 GND to WS2812 GND;
  • F411 3V3 to WS2812 5V;
  • F411 PA7 (SPI1_MOSI) PB15 (SPI2_MOSI) to WS2812 DIn

Next, copy ws2812.py into the WeAct F411’s flash. Now create a script to drive the LEDs. Here’s one to drive 8 LEDs, modified from the library’s advanced example:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import time
import math

from ws2812 import WS2812

ring = WS2812(spi_bus=2, led_count=8, intensity=0.1)

def data_generator(led_count):
    data = [(0, 0, 0) for i in range(led_count)]
    step = 0
    while True:
        red = int((1 + math.sin(step * 0.1324)) * 127)
        green = int((1 + math.sin(step * 0.1654)) * 127)
        blue = int((1 + math.sin(step * 0.1)) * 127)
        data[step % led_count] = (red, green, blue)
        yield data
        step += 1

for data in data_generator(ring.led_count):
    ring.show(data)
    time.sleep_ms(100)

Previously I said you’d see your WS2812s flicker and shimmer from the SPI bus noise. I thought it was cool, but I suspect it was also why the external flash on my F411 board just died. By pumping data into PA7, I was also hammering the flash chip’s DI line

Canaduino STM32 boards with MicroPython

Volker Forster at Universal Solder was kind enough to send me a couple of these boards for free when I asked about availability. By way of thanks, I’m writing this article about what’s neat about these micro-controller boards.

always neat packaging from Universal Solder

Can I just say how nicely packaged Universal Solder’s own or customized products are? They want it to get to you, and they want it to work.

I’d previously played around with Blue Pill and Black Pill boards with limited success. Yes, they’re cheap and powerful, but getting the toolchain to work reliably was so much work. So when I read about the WeAct STM32F411CEU6 board on the MicroPython forum, I knew they’d be a much better bet.

Canaduino Black Pill Carrier Board with STM32F411 (and battery) installed

Volker sent me two different things:

Let’s start with the STM32 Screw Terminal Adapter:

Canaduino Black Pill Carrier Board (front)

It’s a neat, solid board built on a black 1.6 mm thick PCB. Apart from the obvious screw terminals — essential for long-term industrial installations — it adds three handy features:

  • a real-time clock battery. If you’re using a micro-controller for data logging, an RTC battery helps you keep timestamps accurate even if the device loses power.
  • mounting holes! This may seem a small thing, but if you can mount your micro-controller solidly, your project will look much more professional and last longer too.
  • A 6–30 V DC regulator. Connect this voltage between Vin and GND and the regulator will keep the board happy. From the helpful graph on the back of the board, it doesn’t look as if things start getting efficient until around 12 V, but it’s really nice to have a choice.
Canaduino Black Pill Carrier Board (back)

I made a little slip-case for this board so it wouldn’t short out on the workbench. The project is here: Canaduino STM32 Screw Terminal board tray and you can download a snapshot here:

The boards themselves are pretty neat:

two STM32F411 Black Pill boards from Canaduino

Gone are the lumpy pin headers of the earlier Blue and Black Pill boards, replaced by tactile switches. The iffy micro USB connectors are replaced by much more solid USB C connectors. According to STM32-base, the STM32F411 has:

  • 100 MHz ARM Cortex-M4 core. This brings fast (single-precision) floating point so you don’t have to fret over integer maths
  • 512 K Flash, 128 K RAM. MicroPython runs in this, but more flash is always helpful
  • Lots of digital and analogue I/O, including a 12-bit ADC
  • A user LED and user input switch.

About the only advanced features it’s missing are a true RNG, a DAC for analogue outputs, and WiFi. But on top of all this, Volker added:

the all-important 128 Mbit flash chip (and capacitor) fitted by Universal Solder

128 Mbit of Flash! This gives the board roughly 16 MB of storage that, when used with MicroPython, appears as a small USB drive for your programs and data. I found I was able to read the ADC more than 22,000 times/second under MicroPython, so who needs slow-to-deploy compiled code?

STM32F411 board pinout
board pinout from STM32F4x1 MiniF4 / WeAct Studio 微行工作室 出品.
Avoid A4-A7 if you’re using a flash chip.

Building and Installing MicroPython

This is surprisingly easy. You’ll need to install the gcc-arm-none-eabi compiler set before you start, but following the instructions at mcauser/WEACT_F411CEU6: MicroPython board definition for the WeAct STM32F411CEU6 board will get you there.

I had to run make a couple of times before it would build, but it built and installed quickly. This board doesn’t take UF2 image files that other boards use, so the installation is a little more complicated than other. But it works!

Once flashed, you should have a USB device with two important MicroPython files on it: boot.py and main.py. boot.py is best left alone, but main.py can be used for your program. I’m going into more details in a later article, but how about replacing the main.py program with the fanciest version if Blink you ever saw:

# main.py -- fancy Blink (scruss, 2020-05)

from pyb import LED
from machine import Timer
tim = Timer(-1)
tim.init(period=1000, mode=Timer.PERIODIC,
         callback=lambda t: LED(1).toggle())

None of that blocking delay() nonsense: we’re using a periodic timer to toggle the user LED every second!

debugging the mystery huge potentiometer using two ADC channels

I’m really impressed with the Universal Solder-modified board as an experimentation/discovery platform. MicroPython makes development and testing really quick and easy.

[and about the mystery huge potentiometer: it’s a Computer Instruments Corporation Model 206-IG multi-turn, multi-track potentiometer I picked up from the free table at a nerd event. I think it’s a 1950s (so Servo-control/Cybernetics age) analogue equivalent of a shaft encoder, looking at the patent. Best I can tell is that each pot (there are two, stacked, with precision bearings) appears to have two 120° 10k ohm sweep tracks offset 90° to one another. The four wipers are labelled -COS, -SIN, +COS and +SIN. If anyone knows more about the thing, let me know!]

MicroPython on the terrible old ESP8266-12 Development Board

… + 1 + 1 + 1 …

I just found my first ESP8266 dev board. This was from way back before Arduino support, and long before MicroPython

esp8266-dev-boards from ESP8266 Support WIKI

It’s not really in a useful form factor, but it’s got some sensors and outputs:

  • an LDR on the ADC channel
  • RGB LED for PWM on pins 15, 12 & 13
  • red LEDs pins 16, 14, 5, 4, 0, 2 with inverted logic: set them low to light them.

My board can’t quite be the earliest of the early, as it has 1 MB of flash. This is enough to install MicroPython, so I wrote a tiny test program for the outputs:

  • run a binary counter every second on the six red LEDs;
  • cycle through a colour wheel on the RGB LED while this is happening.

Here’s the code:

# esp8266 old explorer board
# see https://www.esp8266.com/wiki/lib/exe/detail.php?id=esp8266-dev-boards&media=esp8266-12_mod.png

from time import sleep
from machine import Pin, PWM
# LEDs are 16, 14, 5, 4, 0, 2 - L to R
# inverted logic: 1 = off
leds = [Pin(2, Pin.OUT, value=1), Pin(0, Pin.OUT, value=1), Pin(4, Pin.OUT, value=1), Pin(
    5, Pin.OUT, value=1), Pin(14, Pin.OUT, value=1), Pin(16, Pin.OUT, value=1)]

# RGB for PWM on [15, 12, 13]
rgb = (PWM(Pin(15)), PWM(Pin(12)), PWM(Pin(13)))
# LDR on ADC


def cos_wheel(pos):
    # Input a value 0 to 255 to get a colour value.
    # scruss (Stewart Russell) - 2019-03 - CC-BY-SA
    from math import cos, pi
    if pos < 0:
        return (0, 0, 0)
    pos %= 256
    pos /= 255.0
    return (int(255 * (1 + cos(pos * 2 * pi)) / 2),
            int(255 * (1 + cos((pos - 1 / 3.0) * 2 * pi)) / 2),
            int(255 * (1 + cos((pos - 2 / 3.0) * 2 * pi)) / 2))


i = 1
while True:
    i = i + 1
    i = i % 64
    w = cos_wheel(4 * i)
    for j in range(3):
        rgb[j].duty(4 * w[j])

    for k in range(6):
        if i &amp; (1 << k):
            leds[k].value(0)
        else:
            leds[k].value(1)
    sleep(1)

super-special serial port standards

The PC I put together a few years ago (well, Scott Sullivan told me which bits to get, I bought them and assembled it) is still working really well. It was quite spiffy in its day — i7-4790K, 32 GB DDR3, Asus H97M-E — and is quite fast enough for me.

One thing, though, has never worked. The hardware serial port (the old kind, not the USB kind) refused to do anything. Only in the last day or so did I work out why and managed to fix it.

PC serial ports for roughly the last 25 years connected to the motherboard like this:

motherboard pin 1 → RS232 pin 1; motherboard pin 2 → RS232 pin 6; motherboard pin 3 → RS232 pin 2; motherboard pin 4 → RS232 pin 7; motherboard pin 5 → RS232 pin 3; 
motherboard pin 6 → RS232 pin 8; 
motherboard pin 7 → RS232 pin 4; motherboard pin 8 → RS232 pin 9; motherboard pin 9 → RS232 pin 5; motherboard pin 10 not connected
ZF SystemCard – Data Book (1998)

This rather strange mapping makes sense as soon as you see an IDC ribbon-cable DB-9 connector:

serial cable for the SBC6120-RBC, unhelpfully the wrong way up

Going along the cable from left to right (reversed in the photo above), we have:

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

    1   2   3   4   5
      6   7   8   9

This was good enough for everyone except ASUS, who decided that they needed their own way of arranging cables. Because of course they would:

ASUS wiring: motherboard pin 1 → RS232 pin 1; motherboard pin 2 → RS232 pin 2; motherboard pin 3 → RS232 pin 3; etc.
Oh ASUS, how could you?

With a bit of resoldering, I’ve got a working serial port. You can never have too many.

lots of whirly LED domes

birdsong not included …

For it-seemed-like-a-good-idea-at-the-time reasons, I’ve ended up with a couple of tubes of the big dome LEDs. A tube is a lot; something over 20 pieces. Oh well, I’ll find uses for them eventually.

It seems these are LEDTronics 806 Series ‘Super Intensity 20mm Big Dome 6-Chip LEDs. The datasheet shows they are configured as a DIP-12, with LED cathodes and anodes alternating around the pins:

Dome LED pinout: 12 pins, spaced 15.24 mm across, 2.54 mm between pins
that’s a pretty big dome

The six LEDs are enough to use all of the available PWM pins on a regular Arduino. The green LEDs I have look like they’re supposed to take a current-limiting resistor of ≥ 75 Ω or so at 5 V. The 100 Ω resistors I used did pretty much max out the weedy regulator on the cheap Arduino Nano I was using, so you may want to use bigger resistors if you want to avoid having your USB disappear.

No Fritzing model of the part yet, but here’s a sketch that works, but quite fails to use any interesting PWM functions at all:

// do a whirly thing with the 6 LEDs inside a LEDTronics L806T_UG-LIME 20 mm Big Dome unit
// scruss - 2020-04
// https://www.ledtronics.com/Products/ProductsDetails.aspx?WP=281
// each thru 100R resistor - which might be rather small

#define MAXPINS 5
int pwmpins[] = { 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 };
int i = 0;

void setup() {
  // pwm pins as output, all initially off
  for (i = 0; i <= MAXPINS; i++) {
    pinMode(pwmpins[i], OUTPUT);
    analogWrite(pwmpins[i], 0);
  }
}

void loop() {
  if (i > MAXPINS) {
    i = 0;
  }
  analogWrite(pwmpins[i], 255);
  analogWrite((i > 0) ? pwmpins[i - 1] : pwmpins[MAXPINS], 0);
  delay(30);
  i++;
}

Today’s achievement: make my 3d printer sound like a washing machine

It has a certain rough-hewn quality …

or if you must: Ender-3 plays LG on YouTube.

musical score for the LG theme

I’ll admit that this version is strongly influenced by Washing Machine Sheet music for Percussion, which seems to have a couple of off notes.

That tune again

Midi, MuseScore, gcode and PDF file:

But this is mostly about the discovery of I wrote a program that converts MIDI files to G-Code, enabling my printer to play music with its LCD buzzer on reddit, with the converter at: MIDI to M300

So here’s the gcode to play this:

M300 P632 S554
M300 P35 S0
M300 P222 S740
M300 P222 S698
M300 P222 S622
M300 P632 S554
M300 P35 S0
M300 P632 S466
M300 P35 S0
M300 P222 S494
M300 P222 S466
M300 P222 S494
M300 P222 S415
M300 P222 S466
M300 P222 S494
M300 P632 S466
M300 P35 S0
M300 P632 S554
M300 P35 S0
M300 P632 S554
M300 P35 S0
M300 P222 S740
M300 P222 S698
M300 P222 S622
M300 P632 S554
M300 P35 S0
M300 P632 S740
M300 P35 S0
M300 P222 S740
M300 P222 S831
M300 P222 S740
M300 P222 S698
M300 P222 S622
M300 P222 S698
M300 P2532 S740

Compiling Kermit on modern Linux

One of the quirks of the SBC6120-RBC boards I just built is that its serial port talks a protocol that’s very rarely seen these days: 7 bits, mark parity, 1 stop bit. minicom supports it, but seemingly can’t set it from the command line.

Kermit, of course, can. Kermit (not the frog, but named after him) is the connect-to-anything, with-anything comms package. It’s been in constant development since 1981, and there’s hardly a computer system that exists that it won’t run on. The Unix/Linux variant, C-Kermit, has an incredibly intricate hand-crafted makefile that predates autoconf or cmake or any of those newfangled toys. Unfortunately, though, this means it may need a lot of reading and a little hand to compile.

There may be some additional dependencies, but to build a simple version of C-Kermit 9.0.304 Dev.23 on Ubuntu 19.10 and Raspbian Buster you need this patch, and do something like:

mkdir ckermit
cd ckermit
wget http://www.kermitproject.org/ftp/kermit/test/tar/cku304-dev23.tar.gz
tar xvzf cku304-dev23.tar.gz
wget https://src.fedoraproject.org/rpms/ckermit/raw/master/f/ckermit-9.0.302-fix_build_with_glibc_2_28_and_earlier.patch
patch < ckermit-9.0.302-fix_build_with_glibc_2_28_and_earlier.patch
make linux

and it should build correctly. There are many, many options: make linux+ssl gives some extra network security features; make install puts it in the system path.

The command line I use to connect to the SBC6120-RBC is:

kermit -l /dev/ttyUSB0 -p m -b 38400 -m none -c

That drops you straight into a connection. To get you back to Kermit’s command mode, type Ctrl + \ + C.

Single board PDP-8: take 2 …

A couple of years back, I said I was building a single board computer … and then things went quiet. Yes, I screwed up. A mix of dry joints and possibly burning through traces caused by following old instructions, impatience and a very unforgiving solder type made the original board almost unusable. I finally got a replacement board (thanks, Andrew!) and put in a humongous Digikey order for all the projects that I want to finish, and got going …

circuit board with many chips
I swapped out the 5 MHz crystal for a blazingly fast 8 MHz one

I took quite a bit more care building this, but it was still only a couple of evenings to put it together. While I still used lead-free solder, I hardly needed extra flux at all. The nice ($$$) turned-pin sockets hold the chips much more securely than the cheaper plain sockets I used before.

After a minor hiccup (homebrew null modem cable needs both RX and TX to be useful), it lives!

SBC6120 ROM Monitor V320 Checksum 3752 6072 3515 09-APR-10 21:15:39
Copyright (C) 1983-2010 by Spare Time Gizmos. All rights reserved.
NVR: Not detected
IDE: 489MB - LEXAR ATA FLASH
IOB: Not detected
B
-IDA0
.BASIC
NEW OR OLD--OLD
FILE NAME--ASCART
READY
LIST
ASCART BA 5B
100 FOR Y=-12 TO 12
110 FOR X=-39 TO 39
120 C1=X.0458 130 C2= Y.08333
140 A=C1
150 B=C2
160 FOR I=0 TO 15
170 T=AA-BB+C1
180 B=2AB+C2
190 A=T
200 IF (AA+BB)>4 GOTO 240
210 NEXT I
220 PRINT " ";
230 GOTO 270
240 IF I<=9 GOTO 260
250 I=I-57
260 PRINT CHR$(48+I);
270 NEXT X
280 PRINT
290 NEXT Y
300 END
READY
RUN
ASCART BA 5B
000000011111111111111111122222233347E7AB322222111100000000000000000000000000000
000001111111111111111122222222333557BF75433222211111000000000000000000000000000
000111111111111111112222222233445C 643332222111110000000000000000000000000
011111111111111111222222233444556C 654433332211111100000000000000000000000
11111111111111112222233346 D978 BCF DF9 6556F4221111110000000000000000000000
111111111111122223333334469 D 6322111111000000000000000000000
1111111111222333333334457DB 85332111111100000000000000000000
11111122234B744444455556A 96532211111110000000000000000000
122222233347BAA7AB776679 A32211111110000000000000000000
2222233334567 9A A532221111111000000000000000000
222333346679 9432221111111000000000000000000
234445568 F B5432221111111000000000000000000
864332221111111000000000000000000
234445568 F B5432221111111000000000000000000
222333346679 9432221111111000000000000000000
2222233334567 9A A532221111111000000000000000000
122222233347BAA7AB776679 A32211111110000000000000000000
11111122234B744444455556A 96532211111110000000000000000000
1111111111222333333334457DB 85332111111100000000000000000000
111111111111122223333334469 D 6322111111000000000000000000000
11111111111111112222233346 D978 BCF DF9 6556F4221111110000000000000000000000
011111111111111111222222233444556C 654433332211111100000000000000000000000
000111111111111111112222222233445C 643332222111110000000000000000000000000
000001111111111111111122222222333557BF75433222211111000000000000000000000000000
000000011111111111111111122222233347E7AB322222111100000000000000000000000000000
READY
ASCII art Mandelbrot set
If WordPress’s line wrapping has mangled the above, it should look like this

It compiles and runs a slightly modified ASCIIART.BAS Mandelbrot set benchmark in 144 seconds. This is comparable to many 8-bit computers. The modifications were:

  • PDP-8 BASIC doesn’t quite use ASCII. Its six-bit character set has digits 0–9 at decimal 48–57 like ASCII, but characters A–F are at decimal 1–6 (instead of 65–). The manual claims that CHR$() works modulo 64, so maybe I didn’t need to make this change.
  • Variable names can be called Letter+Number at most, so the original’s CA and CB had to become C1 and C2.
  • PDP-8 BASIC doesn’t support a familiar IF … THEN … structure, but only effectively an IF … GOTO …. I mean, sure, you can use THEN if you want, but only a line number or a GOTO … following it will avoid the dreaded terse NM error. ELSE? Who needs it?!

Extreme Sinclair QL Nostalgia

Back in the mid-80s — right around the “computers are the future, innit?” phase of history — Strathclyde University decided that every student should have access to a computer. Unfortunately, the computer they chose was the Sinclair QL:

Sinclair QL by EWX, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=13983436

In UK computing, the QL is basically a punchline. With Clive Sinclair’s legendary lavish spending and attention to detail, it shipped late, was initially fiercely buggy, had a keyboard that was 100% nope and used microdrives (an endless loop of magnetic tape in a tiny cartridge) to provide occasionally-retrievable data storage.

My brother was at Strathclyde while these computers were available, so he plunked down the deposit and brought one home. It looked good — especially hooked up to a TV through its SCART port. But it didn’t have much software, outside the tools that were homebrewed for my brother’s course.

One piece of software that has stuck with me in the ~35 years since then was a fractal graphics creator. I remembered you could draw segments and overlay them on shapes to make geometric figures. I thought this was magic, especially with the QL’s (at the time) quite nippy 68008 processor.

I don’t know what prompted me to look for it today. I’d half-heartedly looked in the past, but found nothing. But today I remembered it was written by a software company based at Strathclyde, and that got me to the Talent Graphics Toolkit:

Talent Graphics Toolkit

I remembered the “windowed” layout and even the pinstripes. Maybe the graphics were a bit plainer than I remember, but it still delighted me:

why yes, I am easily delighted …

The emulator (uQLx) was not particularly easy to install, but I so wanted to run this again that I persevered.

By the time I got to Strathclyde a few years later, the QLs were history. It was rumoured that there was a storage room full of ’em, and there may even have been a thriving market in not-entirely-legit sales of liberated machines. But that wasn’t my jam back then: we had Atari STs with FaST BASIC cartridges in the engineering lab, and a couple even had connections to the VAX cluster …

PROTODOME’s wonderful chiptunes: how to play them on your own ATtiny85 chips

electronics breadbord with battery, speaker and sound generated by an 8-ping ATtiny85 mincrocontroller. Additional chips on the board are spares holding other tunes
Six whole tunes ready to play on this tiny chiptune player; a couple are included at the end of this article!

I love the ingenuity that goes into making very tiny projects do very big things. I also love chiptunes. So when I read the metafilter post about PROTODOME’s compositions for the ATtiny85, I was very much there for it.

The circuit to play this is no more than a $2 microcontroller, a lithium coin cell and a speaker or piezo buzzer. The microcontroller has 8 KB of program space and 512 bytes of RAM. The output is a single pin, but with very clever pulse width modulation tricks, sounds like three channels plus percussion.

The album is cool enough on its own, but Blake ‘PROTODOME’ Troise has not only published the source code, but also written an academic article on 1-bit music: “The 1-Bit Instrument: The Fundamentals of 1-Bit Synthesis, Their Implementational Implications, and Instrumental Possibilities.Journal of Sound and Music in Games 1.1 (2020): 44-74.

I remembered I had bought a tube of ATtiny microcontrollers a while back. I knew I had a coin cell and tiny speaker. “I can do this!”, I thought.

So what follows is tutorial on compiling embedded code for an ATtiny85 microcontroller on Linux. There are larger tutorials out there, there are better tutorials: but there are also many out-of-date and misleading tutorials. This isn’t a general ATtiny development tutorial, but one specialized on getting PROTODOME’s tunes playing on your microcontroller.

Hardware

The very minimum you will need to play the music is:

But that’s not all: you’ll need much more kit to program these tiny chips:

  • a computer running Linux. Yes, you can do this under Windows and Mac OS, but I don’t know how and there are search engines that care about that more than I do. I tested all of this on a Raspberry Pi 4. Tablets and phones are out, sorry
  • an AVR programmer. You can use an Arduino for this (either an official one or a cheaper clone) but you’ll need some additional fiddling and a 10 µF capacitor to get that going. I used a dedicated USBtinyISP programmer just because I had one, but it’s not really necessary. Whatever you use, you’ll need a USB cable for it
  • probably more jumper wires.

Software

There are two separate toolchains involved — one to build the mmml-compiler to convert PROTODOME’s compositions to µc embedded C code, and another to compile that to ATtiny85 instructions. We can install it all in one go:

sudo apt install avrdude gcc-avr binutils-avr avr-libc build-essential git

Building mmml-compiler is easy enough:

git clone https://github.com/protodomemusic/mmml.git
cd mmml/mmml-compiler
gcc -o mmml-compiler mmml-compiler.c

You can then run the compiler on each of the songs; the album title track, for example:

cd ../demo-songs/4000ad/
../../mmml-compiler/mmml-compiler 4000ad.mmml

⚠️ If you get [ERROR 14] Too few channels stated! instead of Successfully compiled! it seems that the compiler isn’t too happy running on some 64-bit systems. I did all my compilation on a Raspberry Pi 4 running Raspbian and all was well. If you can’t get them to compile, I’ve pre-compiled them for you and they’re at the end of this article.

You should now have a musicdata.h file that contains all the tune data. Copy it to the same folder as the mmml-player C code:

cp musicdata.h ../../mmml-player/
cd ../../mmml-player/

That folder now contains the player and one tune data file. Now you need to compile it into AVR instruction to write to your chip:

avr-gcc -g -Os -mmcu=attiny85 -DF_CPU=8000000 -o mmml.bin mmml.c
avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex mmml.bin mmml.hex
rm mmml.bin

The end result of what that just did is create a single small file mmml.hex containing the ATtiny85 program instructions for the 8+ minute track 4000AD. If you’re compiling for a different µc, you’ll need a different avr-gcc line:

  • -mmcu=attiny85 will need to be changed for your µc. avr-gcc –target-help lists the supported targets in the ‘Known MCU names’ section way up at the top of its too-copious output. If you’re using the ATmega32P chip made popular by Arduinos, that option should be -mmcu=atmega328p
  • -DF_CPU=8000000 tells the compiler that the CPU frequency should be 8 MHz. The AVR µcs can run at a huge range of speeds, but PROTODOME’s music is timed to work at 8 MHz only.

→→→ aside

If you find yourself compiling a few simple AVR projects but want to stop short of a fine-but-overly-complex Makefile project for AVR development, this script to create a hex file from a single embedded C source file might be useful:

#!/bin/bash
# avrbuild.sh - build a simple AVR project - scruss, 2020-04
# usage: avrbuild.sh file.c mcutype freq
# eg: avrbuild.sh mmml.c attiny85 8000000

b="${1%.c}"
rm -f "$b.bin" "$b.hex"
avr-gcc -g -Os -mmcu="$2" -DF_CPU="$3" -o "$b.bin" "$b.c"
avr-objcopy -j .text -j .data -O ihex "$b.bin" "$b.hex"
avr-size --format=avr --mcu="$2" "$b.bin"
rm -f "$b.bin"

In addition to creating a hex file, it also runs the avr-size tool to show you much memory your program uses. The 4000AD tune uses 98% of the ATtiny85’s 8192 byte program space — not quite enough to include that 14 minute extra bass solo, sorry …

←←← end aside

Flashing the chip

So now we do some wiring. If you’re using a dedicated programmer, use jumpers to connect its ICSP port to the ATtiny 85 like this:

                        ________              
                       |o   A   |             
               Reset  -+ 1  T  8+-  VCC       
                       |    t   |             
                      -+ 2  i  7+-  SCK       
                       |    n   |             
                      -+ 3  y  6+-  MISO      
                       |    8   |             
               GND    -+ 4  5  5+-  MOSI      
                       |________|             
                                              

                 MISO    o1 2o   VCC   
                 SCK     o3 4o   MOSI     
                 Reset   o5 6o   GND 

                          ICSP
                        Connector

Wire VCC to VCC, MISO to MISO, MOSI to MOSI, SCK to SCK, Reset to Reset and GND to GND. If you’re using an Arduino, you want to do this:

This is ‘OLD_STYLE_WIRING’ for using ArduinoISP, apparently. But it works!

The wiring for that is:

  • Arduino D10 → ATtiny Pin 1 (Reset)
  • Arduino GND → ATtiny Pin 4 (GND)
  • Arduino D11 → ATtiny Pin 5 (MOSI)
  • Arduino D12 → ATtiny Pin 6 (MISO)
  • Arduino D13 → ATtiny Pin 7 (SCK)
  • Arduino 5V → ATtiny Pin 8 (VCC)
  • You’ll also need to put a 1-10 µF electrolytic capacitor between the Arduino’s Reset and GND pins, but only after you’ve programmed it with the ArduinoISP sketch.

You’re almost there!

Setting up the programmer: USBtinyISP

If you haven’t used one with your computer before, you need to do a little bit of prep so your computer recognizes it. These are modified from a gist:

  • do sudo vi /etc/udev/rules.d/41-usbtiny.rules
  • add the line SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTR{idVendor}=="1781", ATTR{idProduct}=="0c9f", GROUP="plugdev", MODE="0666"
  • save and exit
  • do sudo udevadm control --reload then sudo udevadm trigger

Your system should automatically recognize the device and give you permission to use it without sudo privileges.

Setting up the programmer: ArduinoISP

  • Load the ArduinoISP sketch (it’s in FileExamples)
  • Add (or find and uncomment) the line #define USE_OLD_STYLE_WIRING
  • Upload the code to your Arduino
  • Connect the 1-10 µF electrolytic capacitor between the Arduino’s Reset and GND pins

To program the mmml.hex you created earlier, you’ll need one of these avrdude commands:

For USBTinyISP:

avrdude -c usbtiny -p attiny85 -U lfuse:w:0xe2:m -U hfuse:w:0xdf:m -U efuse:w:0xff:m -U flash:w:mmml.hex:i

For ArduinoISP:

avrdude -c arduino -P /dev/ttyUSB0 -b 19200 -p attiny85 -U lfuse:w:0xe2:m -U hfuse:w:0xdf:m -U efuse:w:0xff:m -U flash:w:mmml.hex:i

What all that means:

  • -c usbtiny or -c arduino: programmer type. In addition, the arduino programmer takes additional parameters -P /dev/ttyUSB0 -b 19200 which specify the port (usually /dev/ttyUSB0 or /dev/ttyACM0) and the baud rate (always 19200, unless you changed it in the source of ArduinoISP)
  • -p attiny85: the chip type, as used in the avr-gcc compiler call way up the top
  • -U lfuse:w:0xe2:m -U hfuse:w:0xdf:m -U efuse:w:0xff:m: fuses are AVR’s confusing name for configuration bits. You might just have to take my word that this sets an ATtiny85 to use the internal 8 MHz oscillator (as opposed to an external crystal) we told the compiler to use further back. A guide to fuse settings is available at the Engbedded AVR Fuse Calculator
  • -U flash:w:mmml.hex:i: the hex file we prepared, mmml.hex.

If everything went right with your flashing process, you should see lots of “avrdude: verifying … done. Thank you”. If you don’t, likely you missed a connection somewhere.

♫ Playing the tunes! ♫

This circuit’s a lot simpler than it looks!

I already described all of the bits in the bill of materials in the Hardware section. If you want it in ASCII art, here’s all there is to it:

                        ________              
                       |o   A   |             
          VCC--(10kΩ)--+ 1  T  8+--VCC        
                       |    t   |             
                      -+ 2  i  7+-            
                       |    n   |             
                      -+ 3  y  6+-      (     
                       |    8   |      ((     
                  GND--+ 4  5  5+--(SPKR(--GND
                       |________|      ((     
                                        (     

          Pin 1: RST - held high through pull-up to prevent reset
          Pin 4: GND
          Pin 5: PB0 - through speaker/buzzer to GND
          Pin 8: VCC - can be a CR2032 Lithium coin cell

          Not shown: 100 nF decoupling capacitor between VCC and GND
          Short Pin 1 to GND to restart song

If you weren’t able to compile the tunes, I’ve included (with Blake’s permission) source for any AVR µc plus hex files for ATtiny85s here: protodome-mmml-examples.zip

Last but not least, there are a couple of tracks included in the source that aren’t on the 4000AD album. Blake gave me permission to include them here, too:

Fly Me to the Moon by Bart Howard, arranged for ATtiny85 microcontroller by PROTODOME, 2020.
Download: fly_me_to_the_moon.mp3
Till There was You by Meredith Willson (from the musical ‘The Music Man’), arranged for ATtiny85 microcontroller by PROTODOME, 2020.
Download: till_there_was_you.mp3

These weren’t recorded from a tiny speaker (that went badly), but directly to a Marantz solid state recorder. The rig’s the same as the playback one, with the speaker replaced by a potentiometer (for level control), a 100 µF capacitor (to take off some of the DC bias and also to cut some of the very high frequencies) and a headphone socket. Have fun!

it’s the most awkward walkman!

goodbye X10, hello trådfri …

scruss/ihsctrl: a package of bash scripts to control selected IKEA Home smart (aka “TRÅDFRI”) devices via their network gateway

The old X10 devices were getting really unreliable: seldom firing at all, getting far too hot, bringing a whole lot of not working to my life. So while it was kind of cool to have my lights controlled by an original 256 MB Raspberry Pi Model B from 2012, it was maybe working one schedule out of ten.

So it had to go: replaced by a Raspberry Pi Zero W and a whole lot of IKEA TRÅDFRI kit. I was deeply unimpressed with the IKEA Home smart app, though: you couldn’t use even basic schedules with more than one light cycle per day. So while I know there are lots of clever home automation systems, I wanted to replace my old cron scripts and set about writing some simple command tools. The result is ihsctrl: very limited, but good enough for me. It’s been working exactly as expected for the last week, so I’ll finally get to wade through 8 years of cobwebs and dismantle the old X10 setup. I already miss the 06:30 clonk of the X10 controller turning the front light on — that was my alarm clock (or alarm clonk) every morning.

(local copy: ihsctrl.zip)