## Crickets in February

It’s mid-February in Toronto: -10 °C and snowy. The memory of chirping summer fields is dim. But in my heart there is always a cricket-loud meadow.

Short of moving somewhere warmer, I’m going to have to make my own midwinter crickets. I have micro-controllers and tiny speakers: how hard can this be?

I could have merely made these beep away at a fixed rate, but I know that real crickets tend to chirp faster as the day grows warmer. This relationship is frequently referred to as Dolbear’s law. The American inventor Amos Dolbear published his observation (without data or species identification) in The American Naturalist in 1897: The Cricket as a Thermometer

When emulating crickets I’m less interested in the rate of chirps per minute, but rather in the period between chirps. I could also care entirely less about barbarian units, so I reformulated it in °C (t) and milliseconds (p):

t = ⅑ × (40 + 75000 ÷ p)

Since I know that the micro-controller has an internal temperature sensor, I’m particularly interested in the inverse relationship:

p = 15000 ÷ (9 * t ÷ 5 – 8)

I can check this against one of Dolbear’s observations for 70°F (= 21⅑ °C, or 190/9) and 120 chirps / minute (= 2 Hz, or a period of 500 ms):

p = 15000 ÷ (9 * t ÷ 5 – 8)
= 15000 ÷ (9 * (190 ÷ 9) ÷ 5 – 8)
= 15000 ÷ (190 ÷ 5 – 8)
= 15000 ÷ 30
= 500

Now I’ve got the timing worked out, how about the chirp sound. From a couple of recordings of cricket meadows I’ve made over the years, I observed:

1. The total duration of a chirp is about ⅛ s
2. A chirp is made up of four distinct events:
• a quieter short tone;
• a longer louder tone of a fractionally higher pitch;
• the same longer louder tone repeated;
• the first short tone repeated
3. There is a very short silence between each tone
4. Each cricket appears to chirp at roughly the same pitch: some slightly lower, some slightly higher
5. The pitch of the tones is in the range 4500–5000 Hz: around D8 on the music scale

I didn’t attempt to model the actual stridulating mechanism of a particular species of cricket. I made what sounded sort of right to me. Hey, if Amos Dolbear could make stuff up and get it accepted as a “law”, I can at least get away with pulse width modulation and tiny tinny speakers …

This is the profile I came up with:

• 21 ms of 4568 Hz at 25% duty cycle
• 7 ms of silence
• 28 ms of 4824 Hz at 50% duty cycle
• 7 ms of silence
• 28 ms of 4824 Hz at 50% duty cycle
• 7 ms of silence
• 21 ms of 4568 Hz at 25% duty cycle
• 7 ms of silence

That’s a total of 126 ms, or ⅛ish seconds. In the code I made each instance play at a randomly-selected relative pitch of ±200 Hz on the above numbers.

For the speaker, I have a bunch of cheap PC motherboard beepers. They have a Dupont header that spans four pins on a Raspberry Pi Pico header, so if you put one on the ground pin at pin 23, the output will be connected to pin 26, aka GPIO 20:

So — finally — here’s the MicroPython code:

```# cricket thermometer simulator - scruss, 2024-02
# uses a buzzer on GPIO 20 to make cricket(ish) noises
# MicroPython - for Raspberry Pi Pico
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from machine import Pin, PWM, ADC, freq
from time import sleep_ms, ticks_ms, ticks_diff
from random import seed, randrange

freq(125000000)  # use default CPU freq
pwm_out = PWM(Pin(20), freq=10, duty_u16=0)  # can't do freq=0
led = Pin("LED", Pin.OUT)
TOO_COLD = 10.0  # crickets don't chirp below 10 °C (allegedly)
temps = []  # for smoothing out temperature sensor noise
personal_freq_delta = randrange(400) - 199  # different pitch every time
chirp_data = [
# there is a cadence=1 silence after each of these
[3, 16384, 4568 + personal_freq_delta],
[4, 32768, 4824 + personal_freq_delta],
[4, 32768, 4824 + personal_freq_delta],
[3, 16384, 4568 + personal_freq_delta],
]
cadence_ms = 7  # length multiplier for playback

def chirp_period_ms(t_c):
# for a given temperature t_c (in °C), returns the
# estimated cricket chirp period in milliseconds.
#
# Based on
# Dolbear, Amos (1897). "The cricket as a thermometer".
#   The American Naturalist. 31 (371): 970–971. doi:10.1086/276739
#
# The inverse function is:
#     t_c = (75000 / chirp_period_ms + 40) / 9
return int(15000 / (9 * t_c / 5 - 8))

# see pico-micropython-examples / adc / temperature.py
return (
27
)

def chirp(pwm_channel):
for peep in chirp_data:
pwm_channel.freq(peep[2])
pwm_channel.duty_u16(peep[1])
# short silence
pwm_channel.duty_u16(0)
pwm_channel.freq(10)

led.value(0)  # led off at start; blinks if chirping
### Start: pause a random amount (less than 2 s) before starting
sleep_ms(randrange(2000))

while True:
loop_start_ms = ticks_ms()
sleep_ms(5)  # tiny delay to stop the main loop from thrashing
temps.append(internal_temperature(sensor_temp))
if len(temps) > 5:
temps = temps[1:]
avg_temp = sum(temps) / len(temps)
if avg_temp >= TOO_COLD:
led.value(1)
loop_period_ms = chirp_period_ms(avg_temp)
chirp(pwm_out)
led.value(0)
loop_elapsed_ms = ticks_diff(ticks_ms(), loop_start_ms)
sleep_ms(loop_period_ms - loop_elapsed_ms)
```

There are a few more details in the code that I haven’t covered here:

1. The program pauses for a short random time on starting. This is to ensure that if you power up a bunch of these at the same time, they don’t start exactly synchronized
2. The Raspberry Pi Pico’s temperature sensor can be slightly noisy, so the chirping frequency is based on the average of (up to) the last five readings
3. There’s no chirping below 10 °C, because Amos Dolbear said so
4. The built-in LED also flashes if the board is chirping. It doesn’t mimic the speaker’s PWM cadence, though.

Before I show you the next video, I need to say: no real crickets were harmed in the making of this post. I took the bucket outside (roughly -5 °C) and the “crickets” stopped chirping as they cooled down. Don’t worry, they started back up chirping again when I took them inside.

## “… that Chinese instruction manual font”

(this is an old post from 2021 that got caught in my drafts somehow)

To which I suggested:

First PostScript font: STSong (华文宋体) was released in 1991, making it the first PostScript font by a Chinese foundry [ref: Typekit blog — Pan-CJK Partner Profile: SinoType]. But STSong looks like Garamond(ish).

Maybe source: GB 5007.1-85 24×24 Bitmap Font Set of Chinese Characters for Information Exchange. Originally from 1985, this is a more recent version: GB 5007.1-2010: Information technology—Chinese ideogram coded character set (basic set)—24 dot matrix font.

## The Potato

… is a thing to help soldering DIN connectors. I had some made at JLCPCB, and will have them for sale at World of Commodore tomorrow.

You can get the source from svenpetersen1965/DIN-connector_soldering-aid-The-Potato. I had the file Rev. 0/Gerber /gerber_The_Potato_noFrame_v0a.zip made, and it seems to fit connector pins well.

Each Potato is made up of two PCBs, spaced apart by a nylon washer and held together by M3 nylon screws.

## can we…?

This is a mini celebratory post to say that I’ve fixed the database encoding problems on this blog. It looks like I will have to go through the posts manually to correct the errors still, but at least I can enter, store and display UTF-8 characters as expected.

“? µ ° × — – ½ ¾ £ é?êè”, he said with some relief.

Postmortem: For reasons I cannot explain or remember, the database on this blog flipped to an archaic character set: latin1, aka ISO/IEC 8859-1. A partial fix was effected by downloading the entire site’s database backup, and changing all the following references in the SQL:

• CHARSET=latin1 → CHARSET=utf8mb4
• COLLATE=latin1_german2_ci → COLLATE=utf8mb4_general_ci
• COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci → COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci
• latin1_general_ci → utf8mb4_general_ci
• COLLATE latin1_german2_ci → COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci
• CHARACTER SET latin1 → CHARACTER SET utf8mb4

For additional annoyance, the entire SQL dump was too big to load back into phpmyadmin, so I had to split it by table. Thank goodness for awk!

```#!/usr/bin/awk -f

BEGIN {
outfile = "nothing.sql";
}

/^# Table: / {
# very special comment in WP backup that introduces a new table
# last field is table_name,
# which we use to create table_name.sql
t = \$NF
gsub(/`/, "", t);
outfile = t ".sql";
}

{
print > outfile;
}
```

The data still appears to be confused. For example, in the post Compose yourself, Raspberry Pi!, what should appear as “That little key marked “Compose”” appears as “That little key marked â€œComposeâ€Â”. This isn’t a straight conversion of one character set to another. It appears to have been double-encoded, and wrongly too.

Still, at least I can now write again and have whatever new things I make turn up the way I like. Editing 20 years of blog posts awaits … zzz

My OpenProcessing demo “autumn in canada”, redone as a NAPLPS playback file. Yes, it would have been nice to have outlined leaves, but I’ve only got four colours to play with that are vaguely autumnal in NAPLPS’s limited 2-bit RGB.

Played back via dosbox and PP3, with help from John Durno‘s very useful Displaying NAPLPS Graphics on a Modern Computer: Technical Note.

This file only displays 64 leaves, as more leaves caused the emulated Commodore 64 NAPLPS viewer I was running to crash.

## The glorious futility of generating NAPLPS in 2023

NAPLPS — an almost-forgotten videotex vector graphics format with a regrettable pronunciation (/nap-lips/, no really) — was really hard to create. Back in the early days when it was a worthwhile Canadian initiative called Telidon (see Inter/Access’s exhibit Remember Tomorrow: A Telidon Story) it required a custom video workstation costing \$\$\$\$\$\$. It got cheaper by the time the 1990s rolled round, but it was never easy and so interest waned.

I don’t claim what I made is particularly interesting:

but even decoding the tutorial and standards material was hard. NAPLPS made heavy use of bitfields interleaved and packed into 7 and 8-bit characters. It was kind of a clever idea (lower resolution data could be packed into fewer bytes) but the implementation is quite unpleasant.

A few of the references/tools/resources I relied on:

Here’s the fragment of code I wrote to generate the NAPLPS:

```#!/usr/bin/env python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# draw a disappointing maple leaf in NAPLPS - scruss, 2023-09

# stylized maple leaf polygon, quite similar to
# the coordinates used in the Canadian flag ...
maple = [
[62, 2],
[62, 35],
[94, 31],
[91, 41],
[122, 66],
[113, 70],
[119, 90],
[100, 86],
[97, 96],
[77, 74],
[85, 114],
[73, 108],
[62, 130],
[51, 108],
[39, 114],
[47, 74],
[27, 96],
[24, 86],
[5, 90],
[11, 70],
[2, 66],
[33, 41],
[30, 31],
[62, 35],
]

def colour(r, g, b):
# r, g and b are limited to the range 0-3
return chr(0o74) + chr(
64
+ ((g & 2) << 4)
+ ((r & 2) << 3)
+ ((b & 2) << 2)
+ ((g & 1) << 2)
+ ((r & 1) << 1)
+ (b & 1)
)

def coord(x, y):
# if you stick with 256 x 192 integer coordinates this should be okay
xsign = 0
ysign = 0
if x < 0:
xsign = 1
x = x * -1
x = ((x ^ 255) + 1) & 255
if y < 0:
ysign = 1
y = y * -1
y = ((y ^ 255) + 1) & 255
return (
chr(
64
+ (xsign << 5)
+ ((x & 0xC0) >> 3)
+ (ysign << 2)
+ ((y & 0xC0) >> 6)
)
+ chr(64 + ((x & 0x38)) + ((y & 0x38) >> 3))
+ chr(64 + ((x & 7) << 3) + (y & 7))
)

f = open("maple.nap", "w")
f.write(chr(0x18) + chr(0x1B))  # preamble

f.write(chr(0o16))  # SO: into graphics mode

f.write(colour(0, 0, 0))  # black
f.write(chr(0o40) + chr(0o120))  # clear screen to current colour

f.write(colour(3, 0, 0))  # red

# *** STALK ***
f.write(
chr(0o44) + coord(maple[0][0], maple[0][1])
)  # point set absolute
f.write(
chr(0o51)
+ coord(maple[1][0] - maple[0][0], maple[1][1] - maple[0][1])
)  # line relative

# *** LEAF ***
f.write(
chr(0o67) + coord(maple[1][0], maple[1][1])
)  # set polygon filled
# append all the relative leaf vertices
for i in range(2, len(maple)):
f.write(
coord(
maple[i][0] - maple[i - 1][0], maple[i][1] - maple[i - 1][1]
)
)

f.write(chr(0x0F) + chr(0x1A))  # postamble
f.close()
```

There are a couple of perhaps useful routines in there:

1. `colour(r, g, b)` spits out the code for two bits per component RGB. Inputs are limited to the range 0–3 without error checking
2. `coord(x, y)` converts integer coordinates to a NAPLPS output stream. Best limited to a 256 × 192 size. Will also work with positive/negative relative coordinates.

Here’s the generated file:

## SYN6288 TTS board from AliExpress

After remarkable success with the SYN-6988 TTS module, then somewhat less success with the SYN-6658 and other modules, I didn’t hold out much hope for the YuTone SYN-6288, which – while boasting a load of background tunes that could play over speech – can only convert Chinese text to speech

The wiring is similar to the SYN-6988: a serial UART connection at 9600 baud, plus a Busy (BY) line to signal when the chip is busy. The serial protocol is slightly more complicated, as the SYN-6288 requires a checksum byte at the end.

As I’m not interested in the text-to-speech output itself, here’s a MicroPython script to play all of the sounds:

```# very crude MicroPython demo of SYN6288 TTS chip
# scruss, 2023-07
import machine
import time

### setup device
ser = machine.UART(
0, baudrate=9600, bits=8, parity=None, stop=1
)  # tx=Pin(0), rx=Pin(1)

busyPin = machine.Pin(2, machine.Pin.IN, machine.Pin.PULL_UP)

def sendspeak(u2, data, busy):
# modified from https://github.com/TPYBoard/TPYBoard_lib/
# u2 = UART(uart, baud)
eec = 0
buf = [0xFD, 0x00, 0, 0x01, 0x01]
# buf = [0xFD, 0x00, 0, 0x01, 0x79]  # plays with bg music 15
buf[2] = len(data) + 3
buf += list(bytearray(data, "utf-8"))
for i in range(len(buf)):
eec ^= int(buf[i])
buf.append(eec)
u2.write(bytearray(buf))
while busy.value() != True:
# wait for busy line to go high
time.sleep_ms(5)
while busy.value() == True:
# wait for it to finish
time.sleep_ms(5)

for s in "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy":
playstr = "[v10][x1]sound" + s
print(playstr)
sendspeak(ser, playstr, busyPin)
time.sleep(2)

for s in "abcdefgh":
playstr = "[v10][x1]msg" + s
print(playstr)
sendspeak(ser, playstr, busyPin)
time.sleep(2)

for s in "abcdefghijklmno":
playstr = "[v10][x1]ring" + s
print(playstr)
sendspeak(ser, playstr, busyPin)
time.sleep(2)
```

Each sound starts and stops with a very loud click, and the sound quality is not great. I couldn’t get a good recording of the sounds (some of which of which are over a minute long) as the only way I could get reliable audio output was through tiny headphones. Any recording came out hopelessly distorted:

I’m not too disappointed that this didn’t work well. I now know that the SYN-6988 is the good one to get. It also looks like I may never get to try the XFS5152CE speech synthesizer board: AliExpress has cancelled my shipment for no reason. It’s supposed to have some English TTS function, even if quite limited.

Here’s the auto-translated SYN-6288 manual, if you do end up finding a use for the thing

Yup, it’s another “let’s wire up a SYN6988 board” thing, this time for MMBasic running on the Armmite STM32F407 Module (aka ‘Armmite F4’). This board is also known as the BLACK_F407VE, which also makes a nice little MicroPython platform.

Uh, let’s not dwell too much on how the SYN6988 seems to parse 19:51 as “91 minutes to 20” …

## Wiring

Yes, I know it says it’s an XFS5152, but I got a SYN6988 and it seems to be about as reliable a source as one can find. The board is marked YS-V6E-V1.03, and even mentions SYN6988 on the rear silkscreen:

## Code

```REM                 SYN6988 speech demo - MMBasic / Armmite F4
REM                 scruss, 2023-07

OPEN "COM1:9600" AS #5
SETPIN PA8, DIN, PULLUP

REM    you can ignore font/text commands
CLS
FONT 1
TEXT 0,15,"[v1]Hello - this is a speech demo."
say("[v1]Hello - this is a speech demo.")
TEXT 0,30,"[x1]soundy[d]"
say("[x1]soundy[d]"): REM    chimes
TEXT 0,45,"The time is "+LEFT\$(TIME\$,5)+"."
say("The time is "+LEFT\$(TIME\$,5)+".")
END

SUB say(a\$)
LOCAL dl%,maxlof%
REM     data length is text length + 2 (for the 1 and 0 bytes)
dl%=2+LEN(a\$)
maxlof%=LOF(#5)
REM     SYN6988 simple data packet
REM      byte  1 : &HFD
REM      byte  2 : data length (high byte)
REM      byte  3 : data length (low byte)
REM      byte  4 : &H01
REM      byte  5 : &H00
REM      bytes 6-: ASCII string data
PRINT #5, CHR\$(&hFD)+CHR\$(dl%\256)+CHR\$(dl% MOD 256)+CHR\$(1)+CHR\$(0)+a\$;
DO WHILE LOF(#5)<maxlof%
REM       pause while sending text
PAUSE 5
LOOP
DO WHILE PIN(PA8)<>1
REM       wait until RDY is high
PAUSE 5
LOOP
DO WHILE PIN(PA8)<>0
REM       wait until SYN6988 signals READY
PAUSE 5
LOOP
END SUB
```

For more commands, please see Embedded text commands

Heres the auto-translated manual for the SYN6988:

## Markedly less success with three TTS boards from AliExpress

The other week’s success with the SYN6988 TTS chip was not repeated with three other modules I ordered, alas. Two of them I couldn’t get a peep out of, the other didn’t support English text-to-speech.

## SYN6658

This one looks remarkably like the SYN6988:

Apart from the main chip, the only difference appears to be that the board’s silkscreen says YS-V6 V1.15 where the SYN6988’s said YS-V6E V1.02.

To be fair to YuTone (the manufacturer), they claim this only supports Chinese as an input language. If you feed it English, at best you’ll get it spelling out the letters. It does have quite a few amusing sounds, though, so at least you can make it beep and chime. My MicroPython library for the VoiceTX SYN6988 text to speech module can drive it as far as I understand it.

Here are the sounds:

Auto-translated manual:

## Unknown “TTS Text-to-speech Broadcast Synthesis Module”

All I could get from this one was a power-on chime. The main chip has had its markings ground off, so I’ve no idea what it is.

Red and black wires seem to be standard 5 V power. Yellow seems to be serial in, white is not connected.

## HLK-V40 Speech Synthesis Module

In theory, this little board has a lot going for it: wifi, bluetooth, commands sent by AT commands. In practice, I couldn’t get it to do a thing.

I’ve still got a SYN6288 to look at, plus a XFS5152CE TTS that’s in the mail that may or may not be in the mail. The SYN6988 is the best of the bunch so far.

## SYN-6988 Speech with MicroPython

Full repo, with module and instructions, here: scruss/micropython-SYN6988: MicroPython library for the VoiceTX SYN6988 text to speech module

(and for those that CircuitPython is the sort of thing they like, there’s this: scruss/circuitpython-SYN6988: CircuitPython library for the YuTone VoiceTX SYN6988 text to speech module.)

I have a bunch of other boards on order to see if the other chips (SYN6288, SYN6658, XF5152) work in the same way. I really wonder which I’ll end up receiving!

Update (2023-07-09): Got the SYN6658. It does not support English TTS and thus is not recommended. It does have some cool sounds, though.

## Embedded Text Command Sound Table

The github repo references Embedded text commands, but all of the sound references was too difficult to paste into a table there. So here are all of the ones that the SYN-6988 knows about:

• Name is the string you use to play the sound, eg: [x1]sound101
• Alias is an alternative name by which you can call some of the sounds. This is for better compatibility with the SYN6288 apparently. So [x1]sound101 is exactly the same as specifying [x1]sounda
• Type is the sound description from the manual. Many of these are blank
• Link is a playable link for a recording of the sound.

## Speech from Python with the SYN6988 module

I’ve had one of these cheap(ish – \$15) sound modules from AliExpress for a while. I hadn’t managed to get much out of it before, but I poked about at it a little more and found I was trying to drive the wrong chip. Aha! Makes all the difference.

So here’s a short narration from my favourite Richard Brautigan poem, read by the SYN6988.

Sensitive listener alert! There is a static click midway through. I edited out the clipped part, but it’s still a little jarring. It would always do this at the same point in playback, for some reason.

The only Pythonish code I could find for these chips was meant for the older SYN6288 and MicroPython (syn6288.py). I have no idea what I’m doing, but with some trivial modification, it makes sound.

I used the simple serial UART connection: RX -> TX, TX -> RX, 3V3 to 3V3 and GND to GND. My board is hard-coded to run at 9600 baud. I used the USB serial adapter that came with the board.

Here’s the code that read that text:

```#!/usr/bin/env python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import serial
import time

# NB via MicroPython and old too! Also for a SYN6288, which I don't have
# nabbed from https://github.com/TPYBoard/TPYBoard_lib/

def sendspeak(port, data):
eec = 0
buf = [0xFD, 0x00, 0, 0x01, 0x01]
buf[2] = len(data) + 3
buf += list(bytearray(data, encoding='utf-8'))
for i in range(len(buf)):
eec ^= int(buf[i])
buf.append(eec)
port.write(bytearray(buf))

ser = serial.Serial("/dev/ttyUSB1", 9600)
sendspeak(ser, "[t5]I like to think [p100](it [t7]has[t5] to be!)[p100] of a cybernetic ecology [p100]where we are free of our labors and joined back to nature, [p100]returned to our mammal brothers and sisters, [p100]and all watched over by machines of loving grace")
time.sleep(8)
ser.close()
```

This code is bad. All I did was prod stuff until it stopped not working. Since all I have to work from includes a datasheet in Chinese (from here: ??????-SYN6988???TTS????) there’s lots of stuff I could do better. I used the tone and pause tags to give the reading a little more life, but it’s still a bit flat. For \$15, though, a board that makes a fair stab at reading English is not bad at all. We can’t all afford vintage DECtalk hardware.

The one thing I didn’t do is used the SYN6988’s Busy/Ready line to see if it was still busy reading. That means I could send it text as soon as it was ready, rather than pausing for 8 seconds after the speech. This refinement will come later, most likely when I port this to MicroPython.

More resources:

## A terrible guide to singing with DECtalk

It’s now possible to build and run the DECtalk text to speech system on Linux. It even builds under emscripten, enabling DECtalk for Web in your browser. You too can annoy everyone within earshot making it prattle on about John Madden.

But DECTalk can sing! Because it’s been around so long, there are huge archives of songs in DECtalk format out there. The largest archive is at THE FLAME OF HOPE website, under the Dectalk section.

Building DECtalk songs isn’t easy, especially for a musical numpty like me. You need a decent grasp of music notation, phonemic/phonetic markup and patience with DECtalk’s weird and ancient text formats.

## DECtalk phonemes

While DECtalk can accept text and turn it into a fair approximation of spoken English, for singing you have to use phonemes. Let’s say we have a solfège-ish major scale:

`do re mi fa sol la ti do`

If we’re all fancy-like and know our International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), that would translate to:

`/doʊ ɹeɪ miː faː soʊ laː tiː doʊ/`

or if your fonts aren’t up to IPA:

DECtalk uses a variant on the ARPABET convention to represent IPA symbols as ASCII text. The initial consonant sounds remain as you might expect: D, R, M, F, S, L and T. The vowel sounds, however, are much more complex. This will give us a DECtalk-speakable phrase:

`[dow rey miy faa sow laa tiy dow].`

Note the opening and closing brackets and the full stop at the end. The brackets introduce phonemes, and the full stop tells DECtalk that the text is at an end. Play it in the DECtalk for Web window and be unimpressed: while the pitch changes are non-existent, the sounds are about right.

For more information about DECtalk phonemes, please see Phonemic Symbols Listed By Language and chapter 7 of DECtalk DTC03 Text-to-Speech System Owner’s Manual.

If you want to have a rough idea of what the phonemes in a phrase might be, you can use DECtalk’s :log phonemes option. You might still have to massage the input and output a bit, like using sed to remove language codes:

```say -l us -pre '[:log phonemes on]' -post '[:log phonemes off]' -a "doe ray me fah so lah tea doe" | sed 's/us_//g;'
d ' ow  r ' ey  m iy  f ' aa) s ow  ll' aa  t ' iy  d ' ow.```

## Music notation

To me — a not very musical person — staff notation looks like it was designed by a maniac. A more impractical system to indicate arrangement of notes and their durations I don’t think I could come up with: and yet we’re stuck with it.

DECtalk uses a series of numbered pitches plus durations in milliseconds for its singing mode. The notes (1–37) correspond to C2 to C5. If you’re familiar with MIDI note numbers, DECtalk’s 1–37 correspond to MIDI note numbers 36–72. This is how DECtalk’s pitch numbers would look as major scales on the treble clef:

I’m not sure browsers can play MIDI any more, but here you go (doremi-abc.mid):

and since I had to learn abc notation to make these noises, here is the source:

```%abc-2.1
X:1
T:Do Re Mi
M:4/4
L:1/4
Q:1/4=120
K:C
%1
C,, D,, E,, F,,| G,, A,, B,, C,| D, E, F, G,| A, B, C D| E F G A| B c z2 |]
w:do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do re mi fa sol la ti do```

Each element of a DECtalk song takes the following form:

`phoneme <duration, pitch number>`

The older DTC-03 manual hints that it takes around 100 ms for DECtalk to hit pitch, so for each ½ second utterance (or quarter note at 120 bpm, ish), I split it up as:

• 100 ms of the initial consonant;
• 337 ms of the vowel sound;
• 63 ms of pause (which has the phoneme code “_”). Pauses don’t need pitch numbers, unless you want them to preempt DECtalk’s pitch-change algorithm.

So the three lowest notes in the major scale would sing as:

```[d<100,1>ow<337,1>_<63>
r<100,3>ey<337,3>_<63>
m<100,5>iy<337,5>_<63>].```

I’ve split them into line for ease of reading, but DECtalk adds extra pauses if you include spaces, so don’t.

The full three octave major scale looks like this:

`[d<100,1>ow<337,1>_<63>r<100,3>ey<337,3>_<63>m<100,5>iy<337,5>_<63>f<100,6>aa<337,6>_<63>s<100,8>ow<337,8>_<63>l<100,10>aa<337,10>_<63>t<100,12>iy<337,12>_<63>d<100,13>ow<337,13>_<63>r<100,15>ey<337,15>_<63>m<100,17>iy<337,17>_<63>f<100,18>aa<337,18>_<63>s<100,20>ow<337,20>_<63>l<100,22>aa<337,22>_<63>t<100,24>iy<337,24>_<63>d<100,25>ow<337,25>_<63>r<100,27>ey<337,27>_<63>m<100,29>iy<337,29>_<63>f<100,30>aa<337,30>_<63>s<100,32>ow<337,32>_<63>l<100,34>aa<337,34>_<63>t<100,36>iy<337,36>_<63>d<100,37>ow<337,37>_<63>].`

You can paste that into the DECtalk browser window, or run the following from the command line on Linux:

`say -pre '[:PHONE ON]' -a '[d<100,1>ow<337,1>_<63>r<100,3>ey<337,3>_<63>m<100,5>iy<337,5>_<63>f<100,6>aa<337,6>_<63>s<100,8>ow<337,8>_<63>l<100,10>aa<337,10>_<63>t<100,12>iy<337,12>_<63>d<100,13>ow<337,13>_<63>r<100,15>ey<337,15>_<63>m<100,17>iy<337,17>_<63>f<100,18>aa<337,18>_<63>s<100,20>ow<337,20>_<63>l<100,22>aa<337,22>_<63>t<100,24>iy<337,24>_<63>d<100,25>ow<337,25>_<63>r<100,27>ey<337,27>_<63>m<100,29>iy<337,29>_<63>f<100,30>aa<337,30>_<63>s<100,32>ow<337,32>_<63>l<100,34>aa<337,34>_<63>t<100,36>iy<337,36>_<63>d<100,37>ow<337,37>_<63>].'`

It sounds like this:

Singing a scale is hardly singing a tune, but hey, you were warned that this was a terrible guide at the outset. I hope I’ve given you a start on which you can build your own songs.

(One detail I haven’t tried yet: the older DTC-03 manual hints that singing notes can take Hz values instead of pitch numbers, and apparently loses the vibrato effect. It’s not that hard to convert from a note/octave to a frequency. Whether this still works, I don’t know.)

This post from Patrick Perdue suggested to me I had to dig into the Hz value substitution because the results are so gloriously awful. Of course, I had to write a Perl regex to make the conversions from DECtalk 1–37 sung notes to frequencies from 65–523 Hz:

`perl -pwle 's|(?<=,)(\d+)(?=>)|sprintf("%.0f", 440*2**((\$1-34)/12))|eg;'`

(as one does). So the sung scale ends up as this non-vibrato text:

```say -pre '[:PHONE ON]' -a '[d<100,65>ow<337,65>_<63>r<100,73>ey<337,73>_<63>m<100,82>iy<337,82>_<63>f<100,87>aa<337,87>_<63>s<100,98>ow<337,98>_<63>l<100,110>aa<337,110>_<63>t<100,123>iy<337,123>_<63>d<100,131>ow<337,131>_<63>r<100,147>ey<337,147>_<63>m<100,165>iy<337,165>_<63>f<100,175>aa<337,175>_<63>s<100,196>ow<337,196>_<63>l<100,220>aa<337,220>_<63>t<100,247>iy<337,247>_<63>d<100,262>ow<337,262>_<63>r<100,294>ey<337,294>_<63>m<100,330>iy<337,330>_<63>f<100,349>aa<337,349>_<63>s<100,392>ow<337,392>_<63>l<100,440>aa<337,440>_<63>t<100,494>iy<337,494>_<63>d<100,523>ow<337,523>_<63>].'
```

That doesn’t sound as wondrously terrible as it should, most probably as they are very small differences between each sung word. So how about we try something better? Like the refrain from The Turtles’ Happy Together, as posted on TheFlameOfHope:

`say -pre '[:PHONE ON]' -a '[:nv] [:dv gn 73] [AY<400,29> KAE<200,24> N<100> T<100> SIY<400,21> MIY<400,17> LAH<200,15> VAH<125,19> N<75> NOW<400,22> BAH<200,26> DXIY<200,27> BAH<300,26> T<100> YU<600,24> FOR<200,21> AO<300,24> LX<100> MAY<400,26> LAY<900,27> F<300> _<400> WEH<300,29> N<100> YXOR<400,24> NIR<400,21> MIY<400,17> BEY<200,15> BIY<200,19> DHAX<400,22> SKAY<125,26> Z<75> WIH<125,27> LX<75> BIY<400,26> BLUW<600,24> FOR<200,21> AO<300,24> LX<100> MAY<400,26> LAY<900,27> F<300> _<300> ].'`

“Refrain” is a good word, as it’s exactly what I should have done, rather than commit a terribleness on the audio by de-vibratoing it:

`say -pre '[:PHONE ON]' -a '[:nv] [:dv gn 73] [AY<400,330> KAE<200,247> N<100> T<100> SIY<400,208> MIY<400,165> LAH<200,147> VAH<125,185> N<75> NOW<400,220> BAH<200,277> DXIY<200,294> BAH<300,277> T<100> YU<600,247> FOR<200,208> AO<300,247> LX<100> MAY<400,277> LAY<900,294> F<300> _<400> WEH<300,330> N<100> YXOR<400,247> NIR<400,208> MIY<400,165> BEY<200,147> BIY<200,185> DHAX<400,220> SKAY<125,277> Z<75> WIH<125,294> LX<75> BIY<400,277> BLUW<600,247> FOR<200,208> AO<300,247> LX<100> MAY<400,277> LAY<900,294> F<300> _<300> ].'`

Oh dear. You can’t unhear that, can you?

## Using the IBM Wheelwriter 10 Series II Typewriter as a printer

I can’t believe I’m having to write this article again. Back in 2004, I picked up an identical model of typewriter on Freecycle, also complete with the parallel printer option board. The one I had back then had an incredible selection of printwheels. And I gave it all away! Aaargh! Why?

Last month, I ventured out to a Value Village in more affluent part of town. On the shelf for \$21 was a familiar boxy shape, another Wheelwriter 10 Series II Typewriter model 6783. This one also has the printer option board, but it only has one printwheel, Prestige Elite. It powered on enough at the test rack enough for me to see it mostly worked, so I bought it.

Once I got it home, though, I could see it needed some work. The platen was covered in ink and correction fluid splatters. Worse, the carriage would jam in random places. It was full of dust and paperclips. But the printwheel did make crisp marks on paper, so it was worth looking at a repair.

Thanks to Phoenix Typewriter’s repair video “IBM Wheelwriter Typewriter Repair Fix Carriage Carrier Sticks Margins Reset Makes Noise”, I got it going again. I’m not sure how much life I’ve got left in the film ribbon, but for now it’s doing great.

Note that there are lots of electronics projects — such as tofergregg/IBM-Wheelwriter-Hack: Turning an IBM Wheelwriter into a unique printer — that use an Arduino or similar to drive the printer. This is not that (or those). Here I’m using the Printer Option board plus a USB to Parallel cable. There’s almost nothing out there about how these work.

## Connecting the printer

You’ll need a USB to Parallel adapter, something like this: StarTech 10 ft USB to Parallel Printer Adapter – M/M. You need the kind with the big Centronics connector, not the 25-pin D-type. My one (old) has a chunky plastic case that won’t fit into the port on the Wheelwriter unless you remove part of the cable housing. On my Linux box, the port device is /dev/usb/lp0. You might want to add yourself to the lp group so you can send data to the printer without using sudo:

``sudo adduser user lp``

The Wheelwriter needs to be switched into printer mode manually by pressing the Code + Printer Enable keys.

## Printer Codes

As far as I can tell, the Wheelwriter understands a subset of IBM ProPrinter codes. Like most simple printers, most control codes start with an Esc character (ASCII 27). Lines need to end with both a Carriage Return (ASCII 13) and newline (ASCII 10). Sending only CRs allows overprinting, while sending only newlines gives stair-step output.

The codes I’ve found to work so far are:

• Emphasized printingEsc E
• Cancel emphasized printingEsc F
(double strike printing [Esc G, Esc H] might also work, but I haven’t tried them)
• Continuous underscoreEsc – 1
• Cancel continuous underscoreEsc – 0
(technically, these are Escn, where n = ASCII 1 or 0, not character “1” or “0”. But the characters seem to work, too)
• 7/72″ inch line spacingEsc 1
• Set text line spacing to n / 72″ unitsEsc A n
(this one really matters: if you send “6” (ASCII 66) instead of 6, you’ll get 66/72 = 11/12″ [= 28.3 mm] line spacing instead of the 1/12″ [= 2.1 mm] you expected)
• Start text line spacingEsc 2

Text functions such as italics and extended text aren’t possible with a daisywheel printer. You can attempt dot-matrix graphics using full stops and micro spacing, but I don’t want to know you if you’d try.

## Sending codes from the command line

echo is about the simplest way of doing it. Some systems provide an echo built-in that doesn’t support the -e (interpret special characters) and -n (don’t send newline) options. You may have to call /usr/bin/echo instead.

To print emphasized:

``echo -en 'well \eEhello\eF there!\r\n' > /dev/usb/lp0``

which prints

``well hello there!``

To print underlined:

``echo -en 'well \e-1hello\e-0 there!\r\n' > /dev/usb/lp0``

which types

``well hello there!``

To set the line spacing to a (very cramped) 1/12″ [= 2.1 mm] and print a horizontal line of dots and a vertical line of dots, both equally spaced (if you’re using Prestige Elite):

``echo -en '\eA\x05\e2\r\n..........\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n.\r\n\r\n' > /dev/usb/lp0``

## Character set issues

IBM daisywheels typically can’t represent the whole ASCII character set. Here’s what an attempt to print codes 33 to 126 in Prestige Elite looks like:

The following characters are missing:

``< > \ ^ ` { | } ~``

So printing your HTML or Python is right out. FORTRAN, as ever, is safe.

Prestige Elite is a 12 character per inch font (“12 pitch”, or even “Elite” in typewriter parlance) that’s mostly been overshadowed by Courier (typically 10 characters per inch) in computer usage. This is a shame, as it’s a much prettier font.

## Related, yet misc.

There’s very little out there about printing with IBM daisywheels. This is a dump of the stuff I’ve found that may help other people:

• Wheelwriter 10 Series II Typewriter 6783 Operator’s Guide (Internet Archive; nothing about the printer option)
• IBM didn’t make too many daisywheel printers. Two models were the 5216 Wheelprinter and 5223 Wheelprinter E, possibly intended for larger IBM machines. The 5216 Wheelprinter looks like it may use similar character codes. Here’s a (Printer Definition File?? An IBM thing, I think) for that printer that might help the interested: ibm5216_pdf
• The IBM 6901 “Personal Typing System” included a daisywheel printer (Correcting Wheelwriter Printer 6902) that looks almost identical to a Wheelwriter 10 Series II with the keyboard lopped off. But I can find nothing about it.
• Word Perfect 5 may have had a driver for this typewriter/printer, but that doesn’t help me with the control codes.

## The Joy of BirdNetPi

I don’t think I’ve had as much enjoyment for a piece of software for a very long time as I’ve had with BirdNET-Pi. It’s a realtime acoustic bird classification system for the Raspberry Pi. It listens through a microphone you place somewhere near where you can hear birds, and it’ll go off and guess what it’s hearing, using a cut-down version of the BirdNET Sound ID model. It does this 24/7, and saves the samples it hears. You can then go to a web page (running on the same Raspberry Pi) and look up all the species it has heard.

## Our Garden

Not very impressive, kind of overgrown, in the wrong part of town. Small, too. But birds love it. At this time of year, it’s alive with birds. You can’t make them out, but there’s a pair of Rose-breasted Grosbeaks happily snacking near the top of the big tree. There are conifers next door too, so we get birds we wouldn’t expect.

We are next to two busy subway/train stations, and in between two schools. There’s a busy intersection nearby, too. Consequently, the background noise is horrendous

## What I used

This was literally “stuff I had lying around”:

• Raspberry Pi 3B+ (with power supply, case, thermostatic fan and SD card)
• USB extension cable (this, apparently, is quite important to isolate the USB audio device from electrical noise)
• Horrible cheap USB sound card: I paid about \$2 for a “3d sound” thing about a decade ago. It records in mono. It works. My one is wrapped in electrical tape as the case keeps threatening to fall off, plus it has a hugely bright flashing LED the is annoying.
• Desktop mic (circa 2002): before video became a thing, PCs had conferencing microphones. I think I got this one free with a PC over 20 years ago. It’s entirely unremarkable and is not an audiophile device. I stuck it out a back window and used a strip of gaffer tape to stop bugs getting in. It’s not waterproof, but it didn’t rain the whole week it was out the window.
• Raspberry Pi OS Lite 64-bit. Yes, it has to be 64 bit.
• BirdNET-Pi installation on top.

I spent very little time optimizing this. I had to fiddle with microphone gain slightly. That’s all.

## What I heard

To the best of my knowledge, I have actual observations of 30 species, observed between May 7th and May 16th 2023:

I’ll put the recordings at the end of this post. Note, though, they’re noisy: Cornell Lab quality they ain’t.

## What I learned

This is the first time that I’ve let an “AI” classifier model run with no intervention. If it flags some false positives, then it’s pretty low-stakes when it’s wrong. And how wrong did it get some things!

There are also false positive for Trumpeter Swans (local dog) and Tundra Swans (kids playing). These samples had recognizable voices, so I didn’t include them here.

## The 30 positive species identifications

Many of these have a fairly loud click at the start of the sample, so mind your ears.

### Baltimore Oriole

(I dunno what’s going on here; the next sample’s much more representative)

### Northern Cardinal

Hey, we’ve got both of the repetitive songs that these little doozers chirp out all day. Song 1:

and song 2 …

## Boring technical bit

BirdNetPi doesn’t create combined spectrograms with audio as a single video file. What it does do is create an mp3 plus a PNG of the spectrogram. ffmpeg can make a nice not-too-large webm video for sharing:

``ffmpeg -loop 1 -y -i 'birb.mp3.png' -i 'birb.mp3' -ac 1 -crf 48 -vf scale=720:-2 -shortest 'birb.webm'``

## Edwin Morgan’s “The Computer’s First Christmas Card”

as performed by the flite speech synthesizer and some shell scripts

Not quite as good as having the late Prof. Morgan recite it to you himself — one of the few high points of my school experience — but you take what you can get in this economy.

` MERRY CHRISTMAS*** FORTRAN STOP`

## MicroPython on the Seeed Studio Wio Terminal: it works!

A while back, Seeed Studio sent me one of their Wio Terminal devices to review. It was pretty neat, but being limited to using Arduino to access all of it features was a little limiting. I still liked it, though, and wrote about it here: SeeedStudio Wio Terminal

There wasn’t any proper MicroPython support for the device as it used a MicroChip/Atmel SAMD51 ARM® Cortex®-M4 micro-controller. But since I wrote the review, one developer (robert-hh) has worked almost entirely solo to make SAMD51 and SAMD21 support useful in mainline MicroPython.

Hey! Development is still somewhere between “not quite ready for prime time” and “beware of the leopard”. MicroPython on the SAMD51 works remarkably well for supported boards, but don’t expect this to be beginner-friendly yet.

I thought I’d revisit the Wio Terminal and see what I could do using a nightly build (downloaded from Downloads – Wio Terminal D51R – MicroPython). Turns out, most of the board works really well!

### What doesn’t work yet

• Networking/Bluetooth – this is never going to be easy, especially with Seeed Studio using a separate RTL8720 SoC. It may not be entirely impossible, as previously thought, but so far, wifi support seems quite far away
• QSPI flash for program storagethis is not impossible, just not implemented yet this works now too, but it’s quite slow since it relies on a software SPI driver. More details: samd51: MicroPython on the Seeed Wio Terminal · Discussion #9838 · micropython
• RTCthis is a compile-time option, but isn’t available on the stock images. Not all SAMD51 boards have a separate RTC oscillator, and deriving the RTC from the system oscillator would be quite wobbly. RTC works now! It may even be possible to provide backup battery power and have it keep time when powered off. VBAT / PB03 / SPI_SCK is broken out to the 40-pin connector.

### What does work

• Display – ILI9341 320×240 px, RGB565 via SPI
• Accelerometer – LIS3DHTR via I²C
• Microphone – analogue
• Speaker – more like a buzzer, but this little PWM speaker element does allow you to play sounds
• Light Sensor – via analogue photo diode
• IR emitter – PWM, not tied to any hardware protocol
• Internal LED – a rather faint blue thing, but useful for low-key signalling
• Micro SD Card – vi SPI. Works well with MicroPython’s built-in virtual file systems
• Switches and buttons – three buttons on the top, and a five-way mini-joystick
• I²C via Grove Connector – a second, separate I²C channel.

I’ll go through each of these here, complete with a small working example.

### LED

Let’s start with the simplest feature: the tiny blue LED hidden inside the case. You can barely see this, but it glows out around the USB C connector on the bottom of the case.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.Pin, machine.PWM
• Control pin: Pin(“LED_BLUE”) or Pin(15), or Pin(“PA15”): any one of these would work.

Example: Wio-Terminal-LED.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-LED.py - blink the internal blue LED
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from machine import Pin
from time import sleep_ms

led = Pin("LED_BLUE", Pin.OUT)  # or Pin(15) or Pin("PA15")

try:
while True:
led.value(not led.value())
sleep_ms(1200)
except:
led.value(0)  # turn it off if user quits
exit()
```

### IR LED

I don’t have any useful applications of the IR LED for device control, so check out Awesome MicroPython’s IR section for a library that would work for you.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.PWM
• Control pin: Pin(“PB31”)

Example: Wio-Terminal-IR_LED.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-IR_LED.py - blink the internal IR LED
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Hey! This is a completely futile exercise, unless you're able
# to see into the IR spectrum. But we're here to show you the pin
# specification to use. For actual useful libraries to do stuff with
# IR, take a look on https://awesome-micropython.com/#ir

# So this is a boring blink, 'cos we're keeping it short here.
# You might be able to see the LED (faintly) with your phone camera

from machine import Pin, PWM
from time import sleep_ms

ir = PWM(Pin("PB31"))  # "IR_CTL" not currently defined

try:
while True:
ir.duty_u16(32767)  # 50% duty
ir.freq(38000)  # fast flicker
sleep_ms(1200)
ir.duty_u16(0)  # off
sleep_ms(1200)
except:
ir.duty_u16(0)  # turn it off if user quits
exit()
```

### Buttons

There are three buttons on top, plus a 5-way joystick on the front. Their logic is inverted, so they read 0 when pressed, 1 when not. It’s probably best to use machine.Signal with these to make operation more, well, logical.

• MicroPython interface: machine.Signal (or machine.Pin)
• Control pins: Pin(“BUTTON_3”) or Pin(92) or Pin(PC28) – top left; Pin(“BUTTON_2”) or Pin(91) or Pin(PC27) – top middle; Pin(“BUTTON_1”) or Pin(90) or Pin(PC26) – top right; Pin(“SWITCH_B”) or Pin(108) or Pin(PD12) – joystick left; Pin(“SWITCH_Y”) or Pin(105) or Pin(PD09) – joystick right; Pin(“SWITCH_U”) or Pin(116) or Pin(PD20) – joystick up; Pin(“SWITCH_X”) or Pin(104) or Pin(PD08) – joystick down; Pin(“SWITCH_Z”) or Pin(106) or Pin(PD10) – joystick button

Example: Wio-Terminal-Buttons.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Buttons.py - test the buttons
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# using Signal because button sense is inverted: 1 = off, 0 = on
from machine import Pin, Signal
from time import sleep_ms

pin_names = [
"BUTTON_3",  # Pin(92)  or Pin(PC28) - top left
"BUTTON_2",  # Pin(91)  or Pin(PC27) - top middle
"BUTTON_1",  # Pin(90)  or Pin(PC26) - top right
"SWITCH_B",  # Pin(108) or Pin(PD12) - joystick left
"SWITCH_Y",  # Pin(105) or Pin(PD09) - joystick right
"SWITCH_U",  # Pin(116) or Pin(PD20) - joystick up
"SWITCH_X",  # Pin(104) or Pin(PD08) - joystick down
"SWITCH_Z",  # Pin(106) or Pin(PD10) - joystick button
]

pins = [None] * len(pin_names)
for i, name in enumerate(pin_names):
pins[i] = Signal(Pin(name, Pin.IN), invert=True)

while True:
for i in range(len(pin_names)):
print(pins[i].value(), end="")
print()
sleep_ms(100)
```

### Buzzer

A very quiet little PWM speaker.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.PWM
• Control pin: Pin(“BUZZER”) or Pin(107) or Pin(“PD11”)

Example: Wio-Terminal-Buzzer.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Buzzer.py - play a scale on the buzzer with PWM
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from time import sleep_ms
from machine import Pin, PWM

pwm = PWM(Pin("BUZZER", Pin.OUT))  # or Pin(107) or Pin("PD11")
cmaj = [262, 294, 330, 349, 392, 440, 494, 523]  # C Major Scale frequencies

for note in cmaj:
print(note, "Hz")
pwm.duty_u16(32767)  # 50% duty
pwm.freq(note)
sleep_ms(225)
pwm.duty_u16(0)  # 0% duty - silent
sleep_ms(25)
```

### Light Sensor

This is a simple photo diode. It doesn’t seem to return any kind of calibrated value. Reads through the back of the case.

Example code: Wio-Terminal-LightSensor.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-LightSensor.py - print values from the light sensor
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from time import sleep_ms

# PD15-22C/TR8 photodiode

while True:
sleep_ms(50)
```

## Microphone

Again, a simple analogue sensor:

Example: Wio-Terminal-Microphone.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Microphone.py - print values from the microphone
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from time import sleep_ms

while True:
sleep_ms(5)
```

### Grove I²C Port

The Wio Terminal has two Grove ports: the one on the left (under the speaker port) is an I²C port. As I don’t know what you’ll be plugging in there, this example does a simple bus scan. You could make a, appalling typewriter if you really wanted.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.I2C (channel 3), machine. Pin
• Control pins: scl=Pin(“SCL1”), sda=Pin(“SDA1”)

Example: Wio-Terminal-Grove-I2C.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Grove-I2C.py - show how to connect on Grove I2C
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from machine import Pin, I2C

# NB: This doesn't do much of anything except list what's
# connected to the left (I²C) Grove connector on the Wio Terminal

i2c = I2C(3, scl=Pin("SCL1"), sda=Pin("SDA1"))
devices = i2c.scan()

if len(devices) == 0:
print("No I²C devices connected to Grove port.")
else:
print("Found these I²C devices on the Grove port:")
for n, id in enumerate(devices):
print(" device", n, ": ID", id, "(hex:", hex(id) + ")")
```

### LIS3DH Accelerometer

This is also an I²C device, but connected to a different port (both logically and physically) than the Grove one.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.I2C (channel 4), machine. Pin
• Control pins: scl=Pin(“SCL0”), sda=Pin(“SDA0”)
• Library: from MicroPython-LIS3DH, copy lis3dh.py to the Wio Terminal’s small file system. Better yet, compile it to mpy using mpy-cross to save even more space before you copy it across
```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Accelerometer.py - test out accelerometer
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# based on
#  https://github.com/tinypico/tinypico-micropython/tree/master/lis3dh%20library

import lis3dh, time, math
from machine import Pin, I2C

i2c = I2C(4, scl=Pin("SCL0"), sda=Pin("SDA0"))
imu = lis3dh.LIS3DH_I2C(i2c)

last_convert_time = 0
convert_interval = 100  # ms
pitch = 0
roll = 0

# Convert acceleration to Pitch and Roll
def convert_accell_rotation(vec):
x_Buff = vec[0]  # x
y_Buff = vec[1]  # y
z_Buff = vec[2]  # z

global last_convert_time, convert_interval, roll, pitch

# We only want to re-process the values every 100 ms
if last_convert_time < time.ticks_ms():
last_convert_time = time.ticks_ms() + convert_interval

roll = math.atan2(y_Buff, z_Buff) * 57.3
pitch = (
math.atan2((-x_Buff), math.sqrt(y_Buff * y_Buff + z_Buff * z_Buff)) * 57.3
)

# Return the current values in roll and pitch
return (roll, pitch)

# If we have found the LIS3DH
if imu.device_check():
# Set range of accelerometer (can be RANGE_2_G, RANGE_4_G, RANGE_8_G or RANGE_16_G).
imu.range = lis3dh.RANGE_2_G

# Loop forever printing values
while True:
# Read accelerometer values (in m / s ^ 2).  Returns a 3-tuple of x, y,
# z axis values.  Divide them by 9.806 to convert to Gs.
x, y, z = [value / lis3dh.STANDARD_GRAVITY for value in imu.acceleration]
print("x = %0.3f G, y = %0.3f G, z = %0.3f G" % (x, y, z))

# Convert acceleration to Pitch and Roll and print values
p, r = convert_accell_rotation(imu.acceleration)
print("pitch = %0.2f, roll = %0.2f" % (p, r))

# Small delay to keep things responsive but give time for interrupt processing.
time.sleep(0.1)
```

### SD Card

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.SPI (channel 6), machine.Pin, machine.Signal
• Control Pins: Pin(“SD_SCK”), Pin(“SD_MOSI”), Pin(“SD_MISO”) for SD access. Pin(“SD_DET”) is low if an SD card is inserted, otherwise high
• Library: copy sdcard.py from micropython-lib to the Wio Terminal’s file system.

Rather than provide a small canned example (there’s one here, if you must: Wio-Terminal-SDCard.py) here’s my boot.py startup file, showing how I safely mount an SD card if there’s one inserted, but keep booting even if it’s missing:

```# boot.py - MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51

import sys

sys.path.append("/lib")

import machine
import gc
import os
import sdcard

machine.freq(160000000)  # fast but slightly jittery clock
gc.enable()

# mount SD card if there's one inserted
try:
sd_detected = machine.Signal(
machine.Pin("SD_DET", machine.Pin.IN),
invert=True,
)
sd_spi = machine.SPI(
6,
sck=machine.Pin("SD_SCK"),
mosi=machine.Pin("SD_MOSI"),
miso=machine.Pin("SD_MISO"),
baudrate=40000000,
)
sd = sdcard.SDCard(sd_spi, machine.Pin("SD_CS"))
if sd_detected.value() == True:
os.mount(sd, "/SD")
print("SD card mounted on /SD")
else:
raise Exception("SD card not inserted, can't mount /SD")
except:

```

### ILI9341 Display

I’m going to use the library rdagger/micropython-ili9341: MicroPython ILI9341Display & XPT2046 Touch Screen Driver because it’s reliable, and since it’s written entirely in MicroPython, it’s easy to install. It’s not particularly fast, though.

The Wio Terminal may have an XPT2046 resistive touch controller installed, but I haven’t been able to test it. There are LCD_XL, LCD_YU, LCD_XR and LCD_YD lines on the schematic that might indicate it’s there, though.

• MicroPython interfaces: machine.SPI (channel 7), machine.Pin.
• Control Pins: Pin(“LCD_SCK”), Pin(“LCD_MOSI”), Pin(“LCD_MISO”). Pin(“LED_LCD”) is the backlight control
• Library: copy ili9341.py from rdagger /micropython-ili9341 to the Wio Terminal’s file system.

This demo draws rainbow-coloured diamond shapes that change continuously.

Example: Wio-Terminal-Screen.py

```# MicroPython / Seeed Wio Terminal / SAMD51
# Wio-Terminal-Screen.py - output something on the ILI9341 screen
# scruss, 2022-10
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from time import sleep
from ili9341 import Display, color565
from machine import Pin, SPI

def wheel565(pos):
# Input a value 0 to 255 to get a colour value.
# The colours are a transition r - g - b - back to r.
# modified to return RGB565 value for ili9341 - scruss
(r, g, b) = (0, 0, 0)
if (pos < 0) or (pos > 255):
(r, g, b) = (0, 0, 0)
if pos < 85:
(r, g, b) = (int(pos * 3), int(255 - (pos * 3)), 0)
elif pos < 170:
pos -= 85
(r, g, b) = (int(255 - pos * 3), 0, int(pos * 3))
else:
pos -= 170
(r, g, b) = (0, int(pos * 3), int(255 - pos * 3))
return (r & 0xF8) << 8 | (g & 0xFC) << 3 | b >> 3

# screen can be a little slow to turn on, so use built-in
# LED to signal all is well
led = Pin("LED_BLUE", Pin.OUT)

backlight = Pin("LED_LCD", Pin.OUT)  # backlight is not a PWM pin
spi = SPI(
7, sck=Pin("LCD_SCK"), mosi=Pin("LCD_MOSI"), miso=Pin("LCD_MISO"), baudrate=4000000
)
display = Display(spi, dc=Pin("LCD_D/C"), cs=Pin("LCD_CS"), rst=Pin("LCD_RESET"))
display.display_on()
display.clear()
led.on()  # shotgun debugging, embedded style
backlight.on()

# use default portrait settings: x = 0..239, y = 0..319
dx = 3
dy = 4
x = 3
y = 4
i = 0

try:
while True:
# display.draw_pixel(x, y, wheel565(i))
display.fill_hrect(x, y, 3, 4, wheel565(i))
i = (i + 1) % 256
x = x + dx
y = y + dy
if x <= 4:
dx = -dx
if x >= 234:
dx = -dx
if y <= 5:
dy = -dy
if y >= 313:
dy = -dy
except:
backlight.off()
led.off()
display.display_off()
```